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the drinking of the waters, and the use of the 




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THE second editton, corrected and much enlarged. 


printed for the author, 

and published by 





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Having the opportunity, in the autumn of 1819, oi vi- 
siting several of the most remarkable watering places in this 
country, I became naturally inquisitive into the state of their 
mineral springs ; and, upon a slight examination of those 
which came first within my observation, I found reason to 
suspect the fidelity of the existing sources of authority re- 
specting them. Books were defective in describing the 
number of the springs in many places, and more or less 
erroneous as to the chemical properties of most of the waters. 
I discovered the error into which I had been led by the 
confidence which I had placed in authors ; and I resolved at 
least to gain some further instruction myself. From one 
step I went on to another, and at length conceived an ardent 
desire to engage in an extensive inquiry into the subject, 
and present my results to the Profession and the Public, if 
they should appear to be sufficiently important in novelty 
and interest. 

At Buxton, I was joined by Mr. Garden of London, 
whose skill in operative chemistry is well known. He was fur- 
nished with all the necessary requisites for making a complete 
analysis; and we afterwards proceeded to Harrogate. In 
every instance, all the preliminary experiments were made 
at the springs ; but, except at these places and Tunbridge 
" ells, the shortness of my stay did not allow me the oppor- 



t unity of examining the gases in the usual method. In 
regard, however, to the saline waters of Cheltenham and 
Leamington, and the more simple waters of Malvern and 
Matlock, the determination of the exact quantity of their 
carbonic acid does not appear to me by any means essential ; 
and the proportions of sulphuretted hydrogen, which some 
of these waters contain, are, I think, made sufficiently evi- 
dent for medical purposes. The gaseous properties of the 
Bath waters are accurately stated by Mr. Phillips ; the ana- 
lysis of the aluminous chalybeate in the Isle of Wight is 
very complete from the hands of Dr. Marcet ; and the re- 
print of my former publication on the water of Tunbridge 
Wells, embraces all that I could wish to offer respecting it. 
The greater part of the waters were wholly examined as to 
their solid contents in London, with all the care and re- 
petition of experiments which the importance of the inquiry 

Such was the prefatory statement which I offered in my 
first edition. In the present volume I have added some 
account of the waters of Bristol, Brighton, and the newly 
discovered spring, the Beulah Spa at Norwood. 

To those acquainted with the difficult and almost endless 
details of chemical analysis, the accomplishment of an in- 
vestigation so extensive will appear to be no trivial labour. 
Indeed, I could not have engaged in it without some aid. 
In addition, therefore, to the valuable assistance which I 
received from Mr. Garden, I feel much satisfaction in ac- 
knowledging my great obligations to my friend J. G. Chil- 
dren, Esq. whose kind contributions will frequently appear 
in this work. 

Modern chemistry has afforded improved methods of ana- 
lysis, and has led, consequently, to new reasonings on the 
medicinal properties of mineral waters. 



I have endeavored to prepare a faithful account of the 
chemical properties and medical powers of the various 
waters of which I have treated. An annual excursion to 
some watering place has become so prevalent a fashion, that 
it is of importance for every medical practitioner to possess a 
manual, which shall safely guide his judgment in prescribing 
this class of remedies. The excellent Treatise, published 
by the late eminent Dr. Saunders, contained the best report 
on the subject which chemical analysis at that time of day 
enabled him to give ; but a sufficient interval has occurred, 
in conjunction with many changing circumstances, to render 
that work no longer an authority worthy of complete reliance. 
In the occasion which I have found to differ in opinion from 
some cotemporary writers, on the properties of certain of the 
springs of which I have treated, I trust it will appear that I 
have offered good grounds for the conclusions at which I 
have arrived ; and I can sincerely declare, that, in all my 
observations, I have alone been governed by the desire of 

Wimpolc Street, July 12 th, 1833. 




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Preliminary Statement of the General Action of Tests, 
page 1 to 5. 

Buxton. — General Description, with Geological Remarks, 6. De- 
scription of St. Anne’s Well, 7. Chemical History of the Tepid 
Spring, beginning with the Physical Description of the Water; Ac- 
tion of Tests ; Analysis of the Water, 8 to 13. Medical History 
of the Water, 1 3 to 1 7 . Of the Baths, and Rules of Bathing, 1 8 to 
24. Air of Buxton, 24. The Place and its Vicinity, 25. 
Cases of Gout and Rheumatism, 26 to 30. Cases of Neural- 
gia, 31 to 32. Effects of the Water of St. Anne’s Well, 33. 
Buxton Bath Charity, 34 to 36. Buxton Chalybeate, 36 to 38. 

Matlock. — General Description, with Geological Remarks, 39. 
Of the Water at the Fountain, 40. Action of Tests, 40 to 
41. Medical History, 41 to 42. Of the Baths, 43 to 44. 

Tunbridge Wells. — Geological Description of the Country, 
45. Of the Parade Spring, 46. Introductory Observations and 
Experiments, with the Action of Tests on the Water, 46 to 52. 
Analysis of the Water, 52 to 58. Sussex Hotel Spring, 59. 
Tile House Spring, 60. Medicinal Properties of the Parade 
Spring, 60 to 7 1 . 

Harrogate. — General Description, with Geological Remarks, 
72. Old Sulphur Well, 73. Action of Tests on the Water, 
74. Its Analysis, 75 to 79. Medical History of the Water, 
79 to 84. Of the Baths, 85 to 87. Of Thackeray’s Pumps of 
Sulphuretted Water, 87. Of the Crescent Water, 88. Of the 
Saline Chalybeate, 88. Action of Tests, and Analysis, 89 
to 92. Medicinal Properties of the Water, 92 to 94. The 
Pure Chalybeate, 94. The Old Spa, 95. The Tewit Well, 96. 

. b 



Bath, — General Description, with Geological Remarks, 97. The 
Springs generally described, 98. Their Specific Gravity and 
Temperature, 99. Action of Tests on the Water of the King’s 
Bath, 100. Discovery of Magnesia in the Water, 100 to 101. 
Analysis of the King’s Bath Water, 103. Medical History of 
the Different Waters, 105 to 117. Proportions of Muriate of 
Magnesia in the Water, 116. Of the Baths and Rules of 
Bathing, 118 to 127. 

Bristol. — General Description,, with Geological Remarks, 128. 
Analysis of the Hotwell Spring, 129. Its Medical Properties, 


Cheltenham. — General Description, with Geological Remarks, 

131. Original Spa or Old Well, No. 1, 133; No. 2, 134; 
No. 3, 135; No. 4, 135, Comparative Statement of these 
Waters, 136. Thompson's Wells or Montpelier Spa, 136. 
No. 1, 137 ; No. 2, 139 ; No. 3, 140 ; No. 4, 141 ; No. 5, 141 ; 
No. 6, 142. Comparative Statement of these Waters, 143. 
The Sherborne Spa, 144. The Sulphureous and Chalybeate 
Spring, 144. The Pure Saline, 144. The Magnesian Water, 

145. No. 4, 145. Influence of the Saline Contents of the 
Cheltenham Waters on the Tests of Galls and Potash, 146. 
General View of the Composition of the Cheltenham Waters, 

146. Cheltenham Salts, 147. Imitation of, recommended as 
probably the best, 148. Medical History of the Waters, 149 to 
154. Use of the Warm Bath, 154; of the Shower Bath, 155. 
Rules of Diet, 156 to 160. Fowler’s, or Cambray Chalybeate, 
160. Barratt’s Chalybeate, 161. 

Leamington. — General Description, with Geological Remarks, 
162. Springs of Leamington, 163. Royal Pump Room, Saline 
Water, 163 to 165. Sulphur Water, 165. Lord Aylesford’s 
Spring, 166. Mr. Robbins’s Spring, 167. Mr. Wise’s Spring, 
167. Mrs. Smith’s Spring, 168. Marble Baths Pump Room, 
Right Urn, 168; Left Urn, 169; Middle Urn, 170. General 
Comparative Observations on the Waters, 171 to 175. Conclu- 
ding Medical Remarks, 176. 

MALVERN Wells. — General Description, with Geological Re- 
marks, 177. St. Anne’s Well, 178 ; Action of Tests, 178, Analy- 



sis, 179. Holy Well Water, 180. Controversial Discussion 
with Dr. Philip, on the Properties of the Water, 180 to 182. 
Medical History of the Waters, 182 to 186. 

Isle of Wight. — General Description, with Geological Remarks, 
187 to 189. General Qualities and Specific Gravity of the 
Water, 189. Effects of Re-agents, 190 to 193. Analysis, 193 ; 
Comments on the Analysis, 192. Medical History ol the Water, 
195 to 199. 

Brighton. — General Description, with Geological Remarks, 200. 
The Wick Chalybeate Spring, 200. Analysis, 201. Its Medi- 
cinal Properties, 201. Of the Factitious Mineral Waters, or 
German Spa, 201. Medical Account of, by Dr. Kreysig, 202 to 
209. Table of Analyses, by Dr. Struve, 209. 

The Beulah Spa Spring at Norwood. — General Description, 
with Geological Remarks, 210. Action of Tests on the Water, 
211. Analysis, 2 1 1 . Of the Triple Salt of the Sulphate of 
Magnesia and Sulphate of Soda, 212. Medicinal Properties of 
the Water, 214. Conclusion of the Treatise, 215. 



In an extensive acceptation ot the word, all water, except 
rain water, might he named mineral ; for, of necessity, they 
derive from the strata through which they pass, a certain de- 
gree of impregnation. But, in a medical sense, the term is 
limited to those waters, which, from their degree of impreg- 
nation, gaseous contents, or particular temperature, are found 
to produce some remarkable effect on the human constitution. 

The first step in the examination of a mineral water, after 
having determined its specific gravity, is the application of 
certain tests or re-agents, with a view to form a general 
opinion of its composition. 

For the information of the general reader, I shall prefix 
an explanation of such preliminary steps, and of the indica- 
tions which belong to the respective re-agents that have been 
employed with the waters treated of in this volume. 

The specific gravity of a water will alone enable us to 
form a good conjecture as to the total quantity of solid matter 
which it may contain. 

Kirwan, in his Treatise on Mineral Waters, gives the fol- 
lowing formula for estimating the quantity of solid matter 
from the specific gravity, which, he states, will generally 
indicate the proportion within one or two per cent. 

“ Deduct, from the specific gravity of the water, the num- 
ber 1000, and multiply the difference by 1*4; the product 
will represent the quantity of solid contents. It gives the 
weight ol the salts in their most desiccated state, and con- 




sequently freed from their water of crystallization. The 
weight of fixed air must he also included.” 

Example.— Let the specific gravity of the mineral water be 
1-079, and that of distilled water 1-000. Then 1079 — 1000 
X Hr 110-6, or 100 parts of water of that sp. gr. should, 
according to Kirwan’s rule, contain 110-6 parts of saline 
matter. He adds, “ that Brisson found a solution of two 
ounces of salt in 16 of water to have its specific gravity 
1-079: here 18 ounces 'of the solution held 2 of salt. Now 
as 18:2: : 1000:1 11-1. 

Litmus paper is employed to discover the presence of free 
acid in water, by which its blue colour is changed to red. 
This acid is usually the carbonic; but a similar effect takes 
place from sulphuretted hydrogen. The redness thus pro- 
duced disappears after exposure to the air for some time, or, 
is prevented by boiling the water for a few minutes ; and in 
this way the action of these gases may be distinguished from 
that of the other acids, which permanently redden litmus. 

Turmeric and violet papers are delicate tests for detecting 
uncombined or carbonated alkalies. By these bodies the 
yellow color of the former is changed to a reddish-brown, 
and the blue of the latter to a green. A carbonated earth, 
as, for example, carbonate of lime, has no effect on turmeric, 
but gives a green hue to the violet, even when its proportion 
is very minute ; such is the great delicacy of this test. 

There are other delicate tests for uncombined alkali, of 
which I may have occasion to make mention. 

Tincture of galls, when added to a water containing iron, 
produces a violet color, or dark purple, which, by standing, 
becomes more or less black, according to the quantity of 
metal contained in solution. If the change of color be 
produced previously to the water being boiled, but not after- 
wards, it is a proof that the iron has been held in solution by 
a volatile acid, as the carbonic. If, both before and after 
boiling, the same change be produced, then we infer that the 
iron is combined with a more fixed, or mineral acid, as it is 
usually denominated. 

Prussiate of potash is also a delicate test for discovering 
iron when dissolved in a mineral water. The appearance 



which it presents with this metal, as the impregnation is weak 
or strong, varies from a pale greenish-blue, to a dark Prussian 
blue color. 

Lime zoater is rendered turbid by waters which hold car- 
bonic acid in solution. It does also occasion a precipitate 
with sulphates, and more especially when either sulphate or 
muriate of magnesia is present. If the precipitate which is 
produced by this test be soluble in effervescence with muriatic 
or nitric acid, it may be considered as carbonate of lime, and, 
consequently, that it has been occasioned, by the carbonic 
acid of the water ; but if its solution take place without 
effervescence, it has been produced by some of the other 
salts just mentioned. 

The same may be said if the water give a precipitate with 
lime water in its natural state, and fail to do this after boiling. 
In such cases, the precipitation is to be ascribed to the presence 
of carbonic acid alone ; but should the water be sensibly af- 
fected by this agent both before and after being boiled, it may 
be considered that both carbonic acid and some of the salts 
just stated are contained in the water. At least, the latter 
may with much certainty be expected. 

Nitrate of lead* is decomposed by sulphates and muriates: 
by the former salts, even though their proportion be small ; 
but not by the latter, unless they are present in considerable 
quantity. This test also produces a black flaky precipitate, 
if sulphuretted hydrogen be contained in the water. 

Acetate of lead is more usually employed with a water sus- 
pected to contain sulphuretted hydrogen. The colour of the 
precipitate produced by either of these re-agents varies 
from pale chocolate-brown to deep shades of black, accord- 
ing to the degree of the gaseous impregnation. 

Solution of soap is decomposed, and produces a flaky pre- 
cipitate in any water which contains a considerable proportion 
of any saline ingredient, and especially by an earthy muriate 
or a sulphate. 

* It is to be understood that all the re-agents are to be employed in a liquid 

B 2 



1 may here observe, that the kinds of water which are in 
domestic use are commonly divided into hard and soft, ; and 
that this distinction has been deduced from the difficulty or 
facility with which the respective kind forms an admixture 
with soap. If difficult, the inference follows that much saline 
matter is contained. The acid of the salt, attracting the 
alkali of the soap, leaves the oil detached, forming flakes or 
curds in the water. 

Solution of barytes. — The effects of this test are, in some 
respects, similar to those of lime water, in discovering the 
presence of cai’bonic acid. It acts in the same manner, but 
is more delicate in discovering the presence of any earthy 
or alkaline sulphate, with the sulphuric acid of which it forms 
a precipitate ; and this precipitate (unlike that produced by 
lime water) is insoluble in nitric acid. 

Subcarbonate of soda forms a precipitate w 7 ith all the earthy 
muriates and sulphates, provided they exist in any consider- 
able proportion. 

Muriate of lime is decomposed by carbonated alkalies, if 
they be present in any notable quantity. The precipitate 
occasioned by a carbonated alkali is soluble with efferves- 
cence in nitric or muriatic acid. 

Carbonate of ammonia., and phosphate of soda. — These 
salts are chiefly employed in conjunction, for the purpose 
of discovering, in an unequivocal manner, the presence of 
magnesia. If a precipitate be produced by carbonate of 
ammonia when added in slight excess, the fluid is to be fil- 
tered ; and if then, by the addition of phosphate of soda, it 
yield a further precipitate, of a granular appearance and 
adhering to the sides of the vessel, it may be considered that 
a magnesian salt exists in the water. The first precipitate is 
to be regarded as carbonate of lime ; but if none take place 
from the carbonate of ammonia, the water is to be treated 
with the addition of phosphate of soda as just stated. 

Nitrate of silver is a Valuable and most delicate test for 
detecting the presence of muriatic acid, and all its com- 
pounds. A precipitate formed by any of these substances 
with nitrate of silver, is soluble in pure liquid ammonia. 



Liquid ammonia does not decompose salts of lime ; but 
with magnesian salts, a light white flocculent precipitate is 

Oxalate of ammonia is affected chiefly by salts of lime ; 
but not (or at least not immediately) by those of magnesia. 
It is a most delicate test for discovering very minute quan- 
tities of lime in every state of combination. It produces a 
dense white precipitate. 

Muriate and nitrate of barytes are excellent re-agents for 
the discovery of sulphuric acid, and all its compounds. They 
form, with the sulphuric acid of the salt, a dense precipitate 
of sulphate of barytes, which is insoluble in nitric acid. Of 
these tests, the muriate is the most delicate. 

I proceed now to my general report of the waters, and 
commence with those of Buxton. 


The etymology of the word Buxton is very doubtful, 
and numerous conjectures have been offered respecting it. 
Pegge, in his account of the Roman road through the county 
of the Coritani, or County of Derby, 1779, takes the name 
from Boc, Fagus, or Bocca, Caper, and ptan, a stone. Dr. 
Pearson imagines that it is derived from Bock-Stein, or 
Stein-Bock, which is a German word, and signifies that ani- 
mal which the English call the Stein-Buck, or the wild goat. 

Buxton, during many centuries famed for its medicinal 
springs, distant from London 159 miles, is a considerable 
village in the north-west part of the county of Derby, bor- 
dering upon Cheshire, from which it is separated by a chain 
of high mountains, intersected by deep ravines. The whole 
of this angle of Derbyshire constitutes what is called the 
Peak hundred, a wild mountainous district, thinly inhabited, 
and presenting a rude character of country. The following 
may be offered as a brief geological description. 

It is in a valley surrounded by hills. Those in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood are calcareous, and belong to that 
class called, in this country, mountain limestone. It is a 
very ancient formation of rock, enclosing numerous fossil 
remains of enchrinites, madrepores, &c. ; and is also well 
known here as Derbyshire limestone. It is older than the 
coal formation which is placed upon it. Some of the hills in 
the neighbourhood, as Mam Tor, are composed of a sand- 
stone called the mill-stone grit, which is by some considered 
as one of the beds of the coal series. The mountain lime- 
stone is remarkable for containing many very large caverns, 
the origin of which is uncertain, but which appear to have 
been occasioned, or at least widened, by subterraneous 
waters. In the immediate neighbourhood of Buxton, Pool’s 
Hole is the chief ; but, a few miles distant, the Peak Cavern, 



and the Speedwell Mine, are of greater magnitude, and are 
particularly entitled to admiration. Dr. Short, in his History 
of Mineral Waters, remarks, that Buxton has long been 
celebrated for its warm springs, and that they appear to have 
enjoyed considerable reputation in the cure ot various dis- 
eases, for a longer period, without interruption, than almost 
any mineral water in the kingdom. As early as 1572, a 
Treatise* was written on the virtues of this spring, by a Dr. 
Jones, of Derby ; and it appears at that time to have been a 
place of great resort from all the neighbouring counties. 
Several remains of Roman antiquity have also been dis- 
covered at, or near this spot ; and it is stated that records 
have been found, from which it is collected that the Romans 
made use of the tepid waters of Buxton as baths. 

The water, of which I am about to give the chemical and 
medical description, rises very freely by numerous fissures 
through the limestone, as may be distinctly seen in the large 
public bath when it has been nearly emptied. The well of 
St. Annef, appropriated for drinking, was many years ago 
removed, for the sake of convenience, several yards from its 
former situation. The water is conducted from the spring 
head through an artificial sandstone channel^: it falls into a 
large marble basin (called the well), which is enclosed in a 
handsome stone building, conveniently constructed for the 
protection of the invalid ; open to the air in front, and se- 
cured from intrusion, after the regular hours of resort, by an 
iron gate. 

In its passage from the spring it loses five degrees of tem- 
perature ; being at the head of the large bath, 82°, but in the 

* Its title, “ The benefit of the ancient bath of Buckstones, which cureth most 
grievous sickness.” 

t Leland and Jones (see Camden’s Political Survey) mention, that near to St. 
Anne’s well, “ the Romans had erected their noble works, and that here was 
the ancient chapel dedicated to St. Anne, by which Buxton was preserved in re- 

t Dr. Pearson mentions that the diameter of this artificial semi-cylindrical 
channel is about four inches. The rate of supply of the water is a gallon in a 


basin, 77° It also loses a considerable portion of free 
azotic gas. 


The water is perfectly transparent, and free from air- 
bubbles. It is destitute of odor, and has no other taste than 
that of common spring water heated to the same temperature. 
It does not affect either litmus or turmeric paper. The tem- 
perature in the well is 77° Fahrt. As the water falls from 
the pipe into the basin, large bubbles appear, which, upon 
examination, were found to be occasioned entirely by the 
mechanical action of the water ; atmospherical air becoming 
entangled, chiefly, during its fall. The specific gravity of 
the water, at 60*, is 1.0006 ; but immediately from the spring, 
at 77°, is 999. 

Effect of Re- agents. 

Pure ammonia produces an immediate slight opalescence, 
and, after a short time, a slight Hocculent precipitate. 

Oxalate of ammonia immediately renders the water milky, 
and soon a dense precipitate appears. 

Lime water, and a solution of pure barytes, render the 
water slightly milky. The lime water has no apparent effect 
on the boiled water, and the barytic solution only a slight 

Solution of subcarbonate of soda immediately produces a 
slight opalescence. 

Solution of carbonate of ammonia, a similar appearance. 

Muriate of barytes, a slight cloud. 

Nitrate of silver, a precipitate more dense. 

Solution of soap, an opalescence, but no immediate flakes. 

* The same author remarks, p. 155, vol. i, that the temperature of St. Anne’s 
well is 81 °to 81 £ 0 - I estimated the temperature of the water as it flowed imme- 
diately from the pipe, and found it exactly 77°. 



Nitrate of lead, an immediate dense cloud. 

Muriate of lime, no change. 

Phosphate of soda produces an immediate slightly milky 
appearance ; and, with the addition of carbonate of ammonia, 
a minute granular precipitate. 

Tincture of galls no immediate change ; but, after some 
hours, the water darkens, and a dense shining pellicle ap- 
pears on the surface. This is produced by the union of some 
principle in the gells with the lime contained in the w 7 ater. 

Prussiate of potash, no change. 

The action of these re-agents leads to the conclusion, that 
this water contains muriatic and sulphuric salts with bases 
of lime and magnesia, in small proportions. 


Of the gaseous contents. — Twenty-one and a half cubic 
inches of water, from St. Anne’s Well, were introduced into a 
glass flask furnished with a bent glass tube, its extremity ter- 
minating under a jar filled with mercury, standing in a pneu- 
matic apparatus. The water was made to boil gently for 
about fifteen minutes ; during which time a quantity of gas 
was collected, amounting to -9 of a cubic inch. By treat- 
ment with lime water, it was reduced to -76 ; and the resi- 
duary gas, after deducting -33 of a cubic inch for the volume 
of atmospheric air contained in the tube and neck of the 
flask at the commencement of the process, was found to con- 
sist entirely of azote ; since it was neither itself combustible, 
nor capable of supporting combustion. It amounted to -43 
of a cubic inch. 

Of the solid ingredients. — (A.) A wine gallon of the 
water was evaporated in a glazed earthen vessel to dryness. 
The saline mass, dried at the temperature of 212°*, weighed 
fifteen grains. 

* This appears to be the most suitable temperature for tire drying of precipi- 
tates. It is very important, in the analysis of mineral waters, that uniformity of 
temperature should be observed in this particular. From inattention toil, we 



(B.) The soluble salts were taken up by digesting the mass 
in cold distilled water, and the remaining insoluble matter, 
dried at 219°, weighed 10 •2 grains. 

(C.) The solution in distilled water was evaporated to 
dryness, and the dry mass digested in alcohol of the specific 
gravity -815, with a view to separate the earthy muriates, if 
any existed in the water. The alcoholic solution, when 
evaporated to dryness, afforded a saline mass, which deli- 
quesced in a considerable degree by free exposure to the 

(D.) The deliquescent saline mass obtained in the last 
process was dissolved in distilled water, and decomposed at 
a boiling heat by a solution of subcarbonate of soda. 

(E.) The precipitate thus procured was treated with 
dilute sulphuric acid, and a solution was obtained, which, by 
spontaneous evaporation, yielded distinct crystals of sulphate 
of magnesia. These crystals were dissolved in water ; and 
the solution, on being decomposed by subcarbonate of soda, 
gave a precipitate, which, after ignition on a piece of platina 
foil, weighed -2 of a grain ; equal to -7 of muriate of magnesia. 

(F.) The liquid of process (d.) from which the magnesia 
was separated, was saturated with nitric acid, and a solution 
of nitrate of silver was dropped in so long as any precipitate 
continued to be produced. A quantity of muriate of silver 
was thus obtained, rather more than equivalent to the pro- 
portion of muriatic acid requisite to neutralize the magnesia 
obtained in the last process, and hence it must be referred to 
a portion of muriate of soda, which had been taken up by 
the alcohol. 

(G.) The saline residue left after the action of alcohol in 
process (c.) was dissolved in distilled water, and the solution 
divided into two equal parts. 

have occasion to see that chemists of character have given widely different results 
in analyses of the same waters. It is however to be observed, that, in spring, a 
mineral water, unless coming from a great depth, and remarkably insulated in its 
course, will be found much more diluted than in autumn, by the admixture of 
communicating springs ; and hence certainly some explanation presents itself of 
the fact in question. 



(H.) One of the portions was concentrated by evapora- 
tion, and decomposed by a boiling solution of carbonate of 
soda. A minute quantity of precipitate was obtained, which, 
by treatment with sulphuric acid, yielded -30 of sulphate of 

(I.) The other portion of the aqueous solution was treated 
by a solution of nitrate of silver, with which it yielded a pre- 
cipitate of muriate of silver, amounting to 2-25 grains, equi- 
valent to 1 -05 of muriate of soda. 

(J.) The 10-9 grs. of insoluble matter left in process (b.) 
were digested in acetic acid, and the solution, when assayed 
by oxalate of ammonia and pure ammonia, appeared to con- 
sist entirely of acetate of lime. It was decomposed by a 
solution of subcarbonate of soda; and the precipitate, when 
dried, weighed 10-4 grs. The remaining half grain was 
found to be insoluble both in acid and alkaline menstrua. 
It was converted into charcoal by the action of heat, and 
therefore may be considered as entirely consisting of vege- 
table and extractive matter. 

From this analysis, the composition of the water appears to 
be, in one gallon, 

Of gaseous contents, 

Cubic Inch. 

Carbonic acid 1-50 

Azote 4-64 


Of solid contents, 


Muriate of magnesia. ... -58 

soda 2-40 

Sulphate of lime -60 

Carbonate of lime 1040 

Extractive matter, and a 
minute quantity of ve- 
getable fibres -50 

(Loss) -52 


Such, then, are the results of the direct method of analysis 
by evaporation ; but I must not omit to oiler a statement of 



the composition of this water, according to the ingenious and 
original views of Dr. Murray*. The chemical reader will 
remember, that his theory requires us to consider that the 
saline principles of a water really exist in that state of com- 
bination which forms the most soluble salts ; and not in the 
condition of salts very little soluble as ordinary analysis re- 
presents, and which is to be explained by the re-action of the 
elements of acid and base, which takes place during the 
process of evaporation. 

According, therefore, to this mode of estimation, the con- 
stituents of the water in a gallon will appear to be as follows : 


Sulphate of soda -63 

Muriate of lime -57 

Muriate of soda T80 

Muriate of magnesia -58 

Carbonate of lime 10-40 

Extractive matter and loss 1-20 


Dr. Pearson’s analysis gave the following results. From 
a gallon of the water he procured fifteen grains and three 
quarters of solid contents, consisting of 


Carbonate of lime Ill 

Sulphate of lime 21 

Muriate of soda 1 f 


Dr. Pearson found that the proportion of carbonic acid, in 
the Buxton Water, did not exceed the half of what is found 
in many common springs. He had the merit of discovering 
the separate existence of azote in this water, a principle 
which had never been detected by any preceding chemist in 
any water. In the imperfect state of chemistry, thirty-six 
years ago, the nature of azote was unknown, and he de- 
scribed it, “ as being a permanent vapour, composed proba- 

* Trans. R. S. Edin. vol. viii. 



bly of air and phlogiston.” The present analysis gave about 
one-fifth more of azote in a gallon, than appears from Dr. 
Pearson’s conclusions. 


The properties of this water, as an internal remedy, have 
not been held in the same general high estimation as the 
baths ; but yet their established reputation is considerable ; 
and the well of St. Anne is most commonly visited regularly 
by the invalid, in conjunction with the plan of bathing. It 
has been sometimes entertained, even as a medical opinion, 
that the water can scarcely act medicinally, otherwise than as 
tepid water taken into the stomach, when empty, may be 
considered to have a beneficial operation. This conclusion 
has been drawn from the slight impregnation which the water 
possesses ; and its propriety may fairly be questioned. Is 
the water medicinal from its minute proportion of solid in- 
gredients, and, in this respect, its purity ? Experience with 
some other mineral waters serves to shew that we ought not 
to appreciate their power, merely in the ratio of their im- 
pregnation. We consider that the water of Bath derives a 
great part of its stimulating power from the iron which it 
contains ; and yet its proportion, according to the analysis of 
Phillips, does not exceed one-sixth of a grain in the gallon. 

In judging of the activity of any medicinal ingredient in a 
water, we are to consider that it exerts its influence under 
the most favourable circumstances ; and these chief advan- 
tages may be thus stated. The substance is in a state of the 
most minute division ; its fluid vehicle is received into the 
stomach when free from food, so that it acts readily upon the 
whole surface of this sensible organ ; and, lastly, it becomes 
quickly absorbed into the circulation, not requiring, like 
aliment, any stay in the stomach for the purpose of digestion. 

The active material substances in the Buxton water are, 
according to the last view offered, sulphate of soda, muriate 
of lime, and muriate of magnesia ; but when we look at the 
very minute proportions, not a grain of either article in the 



gallon,- and recollect that sea water, which, as an aperient, is 
taken without inconvenience, contains in the gallon 284 grains 
of muriate of magnesia, and rather more than 45 grains of 
muriate ot lime, we are compelled to believe that the medi- 
cinal action of Buxton water must be referred to its purity, 
its temperature, but above all, its gaseous impregnation with 
azote. I believe that the influence of this gas taken into the 
stomach is very considerable. 

In every case, in coming to a final judgment of the medi- 
cinal character due to a mineral water, we must be very much 
governed by the records of the physician, and the report of 
the intelligent patient. Chemical analysis constitutes an im- 
portant source of information, and is a material requisite in 
first conducting us to a scientific acquaintance with the water; 
but subsequent experience and unprejudiced observation are 
necessary to give us practical knowledge, and a proper 
confidence in our remedy. 

It is now incumbent oh me to offer some further observa- 
tions on the medicinal nature of Buxton water. 

It certainly happens, that, simple as it appears in com- 
position, it does prove inconveniently stimulating to some 
invalids of full habit and of the sanguineous temperament. 
They complain of flushing, head-ache, and slight giddiness ; 
and are deterred by such symptoms from proceeding in the 
course of drinking it. Instances have come under my im- 
mediate observation, in which the exciting power of the 
water has been proved in the gouty patient ; symptoms of a 
paroxysm having occurred in a few days after its commence- 
ment, subsiding also upon its being discontinued, and with 
the assistance of aperient medicine. I intend this statement, 
however, only in illustration of my first remark ; and by no 
means to deter the gouty patient from its use ; who, on the 
contrary, will often derive much advantage from a course of 
the water, in common with others who suffer from derange- 
ment of the digestive organs. 

As a general rule which will scarely require any excep- 
tion, it is expedient that one or two doses of suitable aperient 
medicine should be taken as a preliminary to the use of the 
water ; and gouty patients ought not to begin a course of 



it, unless they are well prepared, and rendered free from 
everv discoverable sign of an active state of the goaty 

The first dose of the water should be taken about an hour 
before breakfast. The medium quantity for the adult will 
be half-a-pint twice a day ; and this portion should be drunk 
at twice, with the interval of a quarter of an hour, walking 
exercise being used, both in this interval and afterwards ; 
or any other exercise, according to the capability and 
the convenience of the invalid. At twelve or one in the 
day, the same quantity of water should be taken upon the plan 
already stated. In the space of a week or ten days, the 
total quantity of water per diem may be increased to a pint 
and a half ; but I am not aware that advantage is to be ex- 
pected from proceeding beyond this quantity. 

I consider that, as a general rule, it is not proper to drink 
the water just before bathing; but it may be taken imme- 
diately after the use of the bath. 

Such patients as find the water to be too exciting, not- 
withstanding that they have taken proper preparatory medi- 
cines, should make trial of it between breakfast and dinner, 
instead of drinking it before breakfast upon an empty sto- 
mach. Should it even then prove too stimulating, it might 
be tried with more chance of success, if previously allowed 
to remain in the open glass about a quarter of an hour, both 
to lose some of its temperature, and more particularly a 
portion of its gaseous matter. Should the water, however, 
thus treated, fail to succeed, we must conclude that there 
exists an inflammatory condition of the habit, requiring par- 
ticular medical treatment ; and this having been premised, 
a better result from the use of the water may be expected to 
follow. The excitable patient, pursuing the same plan of 
caution which I have just now stated, will most probably, by 
degrees, be enabled to drink the water in its most active 

The invalid of an opposite character of constitution and 
daily accustomed to the free use of vinous stimulus, will 
scarcely, if at all, be sensible of any immediate influence 
from the water; and, looking to the simplicity of its com- 



position, may be disposed to regard it with great indifference. 
1 have here, however, to add, that I have seen instances in 
which, notwithstanding that the patient has been in the daily 
habit of drinking a moderate quantity of wine without suf- 
fering particular excitement, the drinking of the water before 
breakfast, was found to produce head-ache and flushing, and 
had the same effect, in a less degree, in the middle of the day 
The individual possessing this constitution, should be ad- 
vised to exercise temperance and careful regimen at the 
table, to forbear from the use of much fluid at his meals, and 
to pay careful attention to the due action of the bowels. If, 
even with such observance, the water prove too exciting, ap- 
parently from the temperament being sanguineous, and the 
habit plethoric, it should be discontinued ; and the necessity 
raaj perhaps, be suggested of using appropriate means to 
lessen a fulness of habit. When the water agrees perfectly 
well, it sits pleasantly on the stomach, and is refreshing. By 
degrees, it produces a sensible improvement of the appetite, 
assists the digestion, and, thus amending the functions of 
the stomach, conduces to the general strength of the body, 
and consequent cheerfulness and comfort of mind. In con- 
cluding with a general medical character of the water, I may 
affirm that it proves very generally beneficial to the dyspeptic 
patient ; and that it is a valuable auxiliary to the use of the 
baths. In the condition of stomach which gout produces, and 
also in the state of constitution which is associated with chronic 
rheumatism, the internal use of the water has, in numerous 
instances within my knowledge, afforded decided benefit ; and, 
therefore, although it be less sensibly active in its properties 
than some of the other waters of which I have to treat, it 
deserves, I am persuaded, to be regarded as considerably 
medicinal and useful. 

Dr. Saunders remarks (Treatise on Mineral "W aters) 
“ that the inhabitants of the place employ the same water as 
common drink, and for all domestic uses which its hardness 
will admit of, and hence the invalid will probably take much 
more than is prescribed, by its being used at table and for 
culinary purposes.” It is first to be observed, that, even if 
the water were taken from St. Anne’s well for domestic use, 



it would so soon be altered with regard to its gaseous im- 
pregnation, that it would no longer be the same agent ; and, 
in point of fact, the water used at the table was formerly- 
taken from the two pumps near to St. Anne’s well ; one of 
which derives its supply from the spring belonging to St. 
Anne’s well, and, having lost some of its temperature by 
its further removal from the original source, is found to be 
68° ; the water of the other pump* is derived from a land 
spring, and is cold. The water now chiefly used for the 
table, throughout the Crescent, is furnished from a pure 
spring in the Manchester road, by means of pipes conveyed 
into the different houses. 

* The close contiguity of the two pumps, the one furnishing warm, the other 
cold water, has long been mentioned as one of the seven wonders of the Peak. 





In addition to the lai’ge charity bath, which is used for the 
infirmary patients, there are three distinct baths for gentle- 
men, and two for ladies ; besides which, there are excellent 
marble baths for the purpose of warm bathing ; a vapor 
bath, and shower baths, most conveniently constructed, near 
to the general baths ; and there is an excellent cold plunging 
bath at a short distance from the town. 

The gentlemen’s public bath measures in length 25 feet 
4 inches; in width, 17 feet 11 inches; in depth, 4 feet 9 \ 

The gentlemen’s new bath measures in length 20 feet 1 1 
inches ; in width, 10 feet 11 inches ; in depth, 4 feet 8 \ inches. 

The gentlemen’s private bath measures in length 20 feet 
6 inches ; in width, 6 feet 2 inches : in depth, 4 feet 9 inches. 
The ladies’ public bath measures in length 22 feet ; in 
width, 12 feet 8 inches ; in depth, 4 feet inches. The 
ladies’ private bath measures in length 1 1 feet 6 inches ; in 
width, 4 feet 6 inches ; in depth, 4 feet 5| inches. 

The baths are furnished with an excellent pumping appa- 
ratus, by means of which water is projected with any degree 
of force upon particular parts of the body affected with dis- 
ease ; and there is a chair for the convenience of those infirm 
invalids who are deprived of the use of their limbs, with 
such machinery attached to it, that the patient can be lowered 
into the water, and raised, with great facility. 

The bathing rooms are well ventilated, and the passages 
are now kept at a very agreeable and suitable temperature 
by means of warm air introduced from an adjoining apart- 
ment, in which there is a stove constructed for the purpose 
of yielding a free supply of heated air. Large and small air 
bubbles are constantly rising up through the water, which 
expand and burst as they arrive at the surface. These 
bubbles are the most numerous in the large bath, which is 



situated over the spring ; for the smaller baths are supplied 
from the reservoir of this spring on the gentlemen’s side. 

The temperature of the gentlemen’s public bath is 82°, 
and of the apartment 72°. It contains 8612 gallons. After 
being completely emptied, it fills again in rather less than 
two hours and a half. It changes itself at the computed rate 
of 60 gallons in a minute. The water is so beautifully trans- 
parent, that the sandstone bottom is seen with the greatest 
accuracy. The pump in this bath is the strongest. 

The temperature of the private bath is 81°|, and of the 
contiguous dressing room, 74°. This bath is supplied from 
the reservoir of the public bath. It contains 1550 gallons, 
and fills again, after being entirely emptied, in twenty 
minutes. It may be supposed to change itself in about an 

The new bath is also supplied from the reservoir, and, 
being farther removed from it than the private bath, loses 
more temperature. It varies, according to circumstances, 
from 80° to 81° ; the temperature of the apartment is usually 
70°. It contains 6291 gallons. It fills again, after being 
quite emptied, in two hours and a half, and it is calculated 
that it changes itself in three hours. 

The large bath on the ladies’ side, over the spring, is 82° ; 
but the private bath, which is supplied from the reservoir, is 
81°, losing a degree in its course. 

There is one charity bath for the use of the men, and 
another appropriated to the female patients. The men’s 
bath is 10 feet 8 inches by 10 feet; the depth, 4 feet 8 inches. 
Its temperature is usually 81 °. 

The women’s bath is about the same dimensions; but, being 
farther removed from the reservoir (that of the ladies’ public 
bath), it varies in temperature from 79° to 81°. 

The vapor bath and the shower bath are administered in 
the best manner at Buxton. 

4 he cold bath is distant about a third of mile from the 
crescent. Its temperature in November, 1819, was 60°. 
Formerly, this bath was divided into two parts, the one for 
gentlemen, and the other for ladies ; but they are now laid 

C 2 



into one. The bath therefore differs in depth, being in one 
part 4 feet 9 inches, in the other 3 feet 11 inches. 

The specific gravity of the water of the reservoir*, at its 
natural temperature, 82°, is 998-4, but at 60°, 1-0004. 

The gas which rises in the form of bubbles through 
the public bath, is incapable of supporting combustion. A 
lighted taper immersed in it was instantly extinguished. 
With a portion of this gas, no change of volume was produced, 
either by lime water or barytic w 7 ater ; and, although mixed 
with an equal volume of atmospheric air, it almost instantly 
extinguished a lighted taper without the least explosion. 

The composition of the water of the reservoir is similar to 
that of St. Anne’s well, as indeed must be expected, the 
waters being derived from the same spring. We have no 
reason to believe that the water of the well contains less of 
azotic gas in chemical solution, than that of the reservoir. 
The difference therefore will be in the temperature, as al- 
ready stated, and in the circumstance of a considerable pro- 
portion of free azotic gas appearing in bubbles. 

I have now to consider the medical use of the bath. 

The invalid visiting Buxton may not have been prepared 
in the state of his constitution, so as to enter upon the use of 
the bath with the greatest advantage. In the instance of a 
plethoric habit, and more especially if there be marks of con- 
gestion in the vessels of the head, some loss of blood will pro- 
bably be a necessary preliminary. If there be increased action 
in the general circulation, blood may be taken from the arm 
with more propriety ; but when there is mere local fulness of 
vessels, not affecting the general circulation, cupping or the 
use of leeches will deserve a preference. Some suitable 
aperient medicine should be premised ; and, obviously, an 
attention to the regulation of the bowels must afterwards be 
constantly observed. To this point 1 have already adverted, 
when speaking of the water of the well for internal use. I 
think it however necessary to remark, that mercurial medi- 
cine should be avoided during the immediate employment of 

* The experiments were made on the water of the reservoir on the gentlemen’s 



the hath. The temperature of 82° is not sufficiently high to 
favor that action of the skin which conduces to the safe and 
most favorable action of mercurial alteratives. 

The class of patients resorting to the Buxton bath com- 
prise, for the most part, those who have suffered either from 
gout or rheumatism. But it is by no means equally proper 
for the gouty and the rheumatic invalid under circumstances 
apparently similar. I should forbid the use of the bath to 
a patient actually suffering the pains of chronic gout ; and I 
should consider him to be requiring suitable medicines to 
remove such symptoms, as an essential preliminary. The 
bathing will be a valuable remedy to relieve that debility of 
limbs, and of the whole constitution, which is a common 
sequel to chronic gout, and which seems to partake very much 
of the character of rheumatism. When gout, from the fre- 
quency and severity of its attacks, has not only debilitated 
the limbs in a serious degree, but has also weakened the 
constitution, so that the circulation is very languid, and the 
nervous system much depressed, it may be desirable that a 
course of warm sea bathing, sea air, and friction, should pre- 
cede the visit to Buxton ; or, if circumstances do not allow 
this arrangement, the warm bath at Buxton should be the 
previous remedy, the temperature being gradually reduced, 
in order to prepare the patient for that of 82°. 

In most instances, and indeed with with very little excep- 
tion, one or two warm baths may be taken with great ad- 
vantage as preliminary to the use of the natural bath ; and, as 
a general rule, the temperature of the first bath should be 
from 95° to 96° ; of the second, from 94° to 93° ; and the 
stay in the bath from six to twenty minutes, according to the 
temperature and other circumstances. 

With respect to rheumatism, so long as it partakes of the 
acute species, the Buxton bath is not proper ; and I am led to 
believe that patients have often been injured by thus prema- 
turely using the bath. Even when there is slight local inflam- 
matory action, not producing any general febrile irritation as 
discoverable by the pulse, the immersion in the hath is seldom 
found to agree. But, flying general pains, with a natural 
state ol the pulse, do not constitute an objection. It is in 



a rheumatic state of the constitution, unattended with fever, 
when the various textures concerned in muscular motion are so 
much weakened, that the patient experiences lameness, stiff- 
ness, and irregular pains, more particularly in damp weather, 
before rain, and from a change of wind to the east, that we 
see the happiest effects of the Buxton bath. The distensions 
of the bursae mucosae, which form elastic swellings near the 
large joints, become relieved, and commonly receive a cure, 
from the influence of pumping on the affected parts, in con- 
junction with the general bathing. This observation applies 
both to the effects of gout and rheumatism. It will some- 
times happen that the patient (more particularly when rheu- 
matism has been the disease), whose infirmity is such, that 
he is conveyed with difficulty to the bath ; whose disabled 
state makes him require assistance at every moment, and 
with difficulty is lifted into the bathing chair to be let down 
into the water, — derives benefit so quickly, that in three or 
four days he is capable of walking to the bath, and making 
his own immersion ; and the subsequent progress of his 
recovery becomes wonderfully rapid. 

The careful management of the bath is, in several particu- 
lars, very important. The time usually chosen by the patient 
is about an hour before dinner. Although it is judicious 
to take sufficient exercise previously, to produce a general 
pleasant warmth of the skin, it is improper to incur great 
fatigue. Those who are strong may with propriety bathe 
before breakfast. It is desirable that the patient plunge, 
instead of stepping into the bath ; because, by means of a 
sudden immersion, a stronger re-action is produced. But (he 
plunge should be made from the steps, rather than from the 
side of the bath, as in the latter case the head would be too 
depending in the fall. 

At first the stay in the bath should be as short as possible, 
and limited to the immediate immersion. The increase of 
time in the subsequent bathings may be from half a minute 
to a minute. At the instant of the immersion, a slight sense 
of chilliness is experienced; but usually this is succeeded by 
a moderate degree of warmth, sufficiently comfortable. The 
proof required that the bath perfectly agrees, is, that the pa- 



tient derives from it an agreeable refreshment, a pleasant 
universal warmth, and a general increase of elasticity. The 
unfavorable effect is indicated by sensations of chilliness, lassi- 
tude, and indifference of appetite. \ et the bath must not be 
abandoned hastily, because its most agreeable effects do not 
immediately take place. The constitution may in a shoit 
time accommodate itself to the influence of the bath, although 
at first the result may seem rather unfavorable and doubtful. 
On this point, however, the patient should consult his medi- 
cal adviser. 

According to the nature of the case, and the individual 
constitution, the question must be determined whether walk- 
ing or other exercise shall be taken immediately after the 
bath ; or, whether the patient shall rather refrain from ex- 
ercise, or even take repose on the sofa. For the most part, I 
recommend repose. 

Those who can use considerable exertion in the bath, and 
more especially in swimming, will not be so much restricted 
in the time of their stay, as others whose infirmity permits 
only slight muscular action ; but in either case the time 
should be gradually increased. For the debilitated patient 
(to speak by way of distinction), from three to five minutes 
may be stated as the full time ; for the strong, ten or twelve ; 
and care should always be taken to keep, during the whole 
time, in free muscular action. On quitting the bath, every 
attention should be used to dry the skin quickly and com- 
pletely, by means of warm towels and friction. This last 
point is of such great importance, that I think it necessary to 
dwell upon it at greater length. 

I am convinced that the advantages of the Buxton bath 
are most materially increased when proper friction and 
shampooing are used in conjunction with it. In some cases 
it is desirable that this treatment should be employed either 
immediately when the patient quits the bath, or very shortly 
after. In general, the exact time of the day is not material. 
By such treatment the circulation of blood in the weak 
muscles is actively promoted, without the least fatigue to the 
patient ; and other good effects upon the infirm limbs are by 
degrees produced. I may briefly define the advantages of this 
treatment to consist in the influence which it may possess 



to relieve the parts from the effects of preceding effusion, by 
exciting the absorbents to unload the cellular membrane; to 
assist in restoring the lost freedom of motion in the tendons 
and ligaments ; to renovate the capability of proper contrac- 
tion and relaxation in the muscular fibres ; to improve the 
circulation as above stated ; and conduce to a more perfect 
transmission of the nervous influence. 

The unrivalled claim of the Buxton hath, as possessing 
highly tonic and restorative qualities, will not be disputed by 
those who have had any sufficient opportunityof becoming ac- 
quainted with its powers. I am not aware that a hath of this 
happy intermediate temperature (82°) between the warm and 
the cold bath, is to be met with in any part of the world. One 
obvious and important advantage derived from a spacious bath 
of the temperature of 82°, over a confined one at the same 
temperature, must be referred to the opportunity which it 
allows of free motion, and which materially assists the sub- 
sequent re-action of the circulation. It is indeed that happy 
medium of temperature between the warm and cold bath, 
neither exciting by heat, nor depressing hv cold, which en- 
ables it to act as a favorable tonic to the limbs, and to the 
general constitution. The uniformity of temperature, in so 
large a body of water, could not be imitated in an artificial 
bath ; and the probable influence which the azotic impregna- 
tion of the water may have upon the skin, is worthy to be 

Those patients who, from the nature of their case and 
constitution, are confined to the use of the warm bath (the 
natural water heated), experience an entirely different action 
from what they have previously found from ordinary warm 
baths used at other places. 

I should be guilty of an omission in my recommendation of 
Buxton, if I did not take notice of the remarkably bracing 
qualities of the air. Although, from its hilly situation, this 
district possesses a variable climate, yet, as the rain quickly 
disappears from the surface, in consequence of the porous 
nature of the soil, the atmosphere is more remarkable for its 
dryness than its humidity. The invigorating power of Buxton 
air appears indeed to be generally acknowledged ; and T was 
informed by many invalids, that they became quickly sensible 



of its happy influence, receiving a remarkable improvement 
of appetite, of spirits, and of general energy. Change of 
air alone is a remedy of great importance ; and the favorable 
influence of the mountainous* situation ol Buxton is oiten 
most happily shewn upon the debilitated invalid. Celsus 
well describes the occasional value of making any change of 
air in the following words. “ Pessimum aegro est caelum, 
quod aegrum fecit ; adeo ut in id quodque genus, quod natura 
pejus est, in hoc statu salubris mutatio sit.” 

The vicinity of Buxton is not devoid of interesting scenery, 
and affords the opportunity of some agreeable excursions, 
which will particularly gratify the lover of Nature in her 
rude attire. The most interesting objects are emphatically 
styled the Seven Wonders of the Peak ; but for all- particu- 
lars of this kind, I must refer the reader to the information 
contained in the Buxton Guide. 

The noble range' of buildings called the Crescent, erected 
at the expence of the late Duke of Devonshire, furnishes, in 
its hotels, every elegant and comfortable accommodation ; 
and for those who prefer to live entirely in private, convenient 
lodgings are readily procured. 

My present limits will not permit me to enter into a long 
detail of cases ; but, in order to illustrate the curative virtues 
of the Buxton springs, I shall offer some of the results of 
my own personal observation and experience during the last 
thirteen years ; having, during that period, visited Buxton 
annually in the season. 

A gentleman, aged 50, of the nervous temperament, for- 
merly a free liver, had suffered long and severely from acute 
gout, but latterly, from the chronic form of the complaint. 
He was reduced in flesh, and weak. He was affected with 
alternating pains in the head and limbs, so much increased 
by change of weather that he considered them to be rheu- 

* “ The mountain, Ax-Edge, in which is the source of the Dove and the Wye, 
is about 1100 feet above the level of the ground at Buxton Hall; and Buxton 
Hall is 1000 feet, or thereabouts, higher than Derby : so that the column of 
quicksilver in the lube of the barometer is always one inch lower at Buxton than 
at Derby, at the same time, and under similar circumstances ” Dr. Pearson 
quotes this statement from Mr. Whitehurst. 



matic, and under this impression visited Buxton, for the 
purpose ot using the natural bath. Neglecting all prepara- 
tory treatment, he bathed three times, within five days, in the 
public bath. On each occasion he felt chilled at the time of 
immersion, and did not receive comfortable warmth after- 
wards. His head was constantly painful, and the limbs in 
no degree relieved. On the day following the last bathing, 
I was consulted, and found him suffering from many urgent 
symptoms. He described his head to feel as if too full of 
blood, and he had great confusion of thought. Gout had 
fixed in one foot and one knee, with much pain, but only 
slight signs of inflammation. He had general pains over 
the body, with frequent nervous shiverings. I found the 
strongest indications of error in the digestive organs, and 
prescribed active aperients and alteratives, in conjunction with 
the moderate use of the acetum colchici. Leeches were 
applied to the temples, and a very small blister to the neck. 

By these means all the active symptoms of complaint were 
in a short time removed, and I then directed the use of the 
warm bath, beginning at the temperature 96 p , and gradually 
reducing it to 90° ; after which he returned to the natural 
bath with perfect success. He continued it for six weeks, 
under strict regulation, and obtained a very satisfactory re- 
covery. He also derived benefit from drinking the water of 
St. Anne’s well. 

I have met with numerous instances in which the gouty 
patient has visited Buxton in a very unfit state of constitution 
for the proper use of the bath ; and, impatient of delay, has, 
without advice or any preparatory treatment, imprudently 
entered on the use of the natural bath, and received much 
consequent injury, instead of benefit. 

An elderly lady, having long suffered from a mixture of 
gout and rheumatism, in the chronic form, attended with 
great derangement of the digestive organs, head-ache, much 
weariness, and great irregularity of the circulation, as indi- 
cated by sensations of coldness of the head and feet, and heat 
about the stomach, right side, and the back, had for a con- 
siderable time desisted from medical treatment, and visited 
Buxton for the purpose of bathing, without using any pre- 



paration. She made trial of the natural bath. Immediately 
on immersing herself, she felt a sense of rushing of blood to 
the head, with pain and confusion, and thought she should 
faint in the bath ; the head and feet remained singularly cold 
for some time. She next used a bath at 94°, but had not 
power of re-action to oppose the feelings of coldness and 
discomfort arising from this temperature of the water ; for 
it should always be borne in mind how great is the difference 
between stepping into a bath and continuing in it at rest, and 
making a sudden immersion and keeping up a constant action 
of the body. 

This lady derived great benefit from a course of bathing, 
first at 97°, and afterwards 96°, in conjunction with medical 

These instances are sufficient to shew the importance of a 
due consideration being given to the fitness or unfitness of 
the patient’s state of constitution for the employment of the 
natural bath. 

A gentleman, aged 50, originally of robust constitution, 
subject to acute gout since the age of 25, had suffered in 
an unusual degree from a continuation of painful symptoms 
during two months ; for he had felt himself so much injured 
by the taking of Wilson’s tincture, Reynolds’ specific, and the 
wine of colchicum to a great extent, that he left this fit to 
its own course, and visited Buxton in his state of convales- 
cence, being much affected in the upper and lower extremi- 
ties, with frequent aching or shooting pains, lameness, debility, 
and so sensitive to changes of weather that there was a strong 
character of rheumatism in his disorder. This view of the 
complaint was confirmed by his suffering occasionally from 

He had lived in so sparing a manner that he did not require 
much preparation from medicine. He used four warm baths, 
beginning at 96°, and each time lessening a degree, and 
shortening his stay in the bath accordingly. He then had 
recourse to the natural bath, which he used with prudence 
and steadiness for six weeks ; at first, two days in succession, 
omitting the third ; and then for three days, omitting the 
fourth ; never remaining in the bath more than seven mi- 



minutes. The pump was applied to the loins and to the 
weakened joints. Friction and shampooing were employed 
daily. I never witnessed a more striking example of the 
utility of the Buxton bath. This gentleman was quite re- 
novated in the active and comfortable use of his limbs, and 
gained equally in constitutional strength and nervous energy. 
He drank the water at intervals, a pint daily, without any 
disagreement, and with much seeming benefit. 

A gentleman, subject to rheumatism, was seized with gout 
in the great toe only, in the first fit. In subsequent attacks, 
both toes and both ankles were affected. He had also sciatica 
on one side, and rheumatism in various parts, at the time 
of the last paroxysm. All inflammation had passed away ; 
but, harassed with continual pains, and such weakness in the 
joints, that he had the apprehension of losing the use of his 
limbs, he made trial of the common warm bath : it did not 
afford relief, and served only to increase the weakness of his 
limbs. In this state he went to Buxton, and bathed regularly 
for seven weeks, with the happy result of a perfect cure. 

I should observe that he omitted bathing the sixth week, 
and used the bath only each other day in the last week. And 
I may here state, that it is advisable, especially for those 
who can make it convenient to remain at Buxton for a long 
period, to lessen rather than increase the frequency of bathing 
at the conclusion of the course ; in this manner gradually 
withdrawing, instead of suddenly discontinuing, so active a 
stimulus to the constitution. 

Another gentleman, much crippled from chronic gout, and 
also affected with rheumatic pains, received a cure at Buxton 
in five weeks. He relates that he was not sensible of any 
material advantage until about the fifteenth time of bathing. 

A gentleman, aged 46, had suffered severe gout in both feet, 
in the toes, instep, and ankles. He had applied leeches freely 
to the inflamed parts, with only slight relief; and considers 
that they had tended to produce the very serious weakness 
and swelling which ensued for a long time. At a distant 
period from the paroxysm, he was unable to walk for more 
than a quarter of an hour, without producing swelling of 
the feet, much fatigue, and excessive aching. In this state 



he visited Buxton ; and, by regular bathing, and by the use 
of the pump, in rather less than five weeks he received a 

The Buxton bath may fairly claim the praise of possessing 
a considerable influence in preventing the return of gout. I 
know one gentleman who, having been slightly subject to this 
disorder, resolved on paying regular visits to Buxton so long 
as he should derive benefit. Accordingly, he went every 
season for seventeen years. He omitted the eighteenth year, 
and was attacked by gout ; since which he has again paid his 
regular homage at this shrine of health, and with as much 
success as before. 

I consider this as an extreme case, and should be still more 
disposed to extol the powers of the baths in preventing the 
return of rheumatism than of gout ; because the latter is so 
much more distinctly a constitutional disease than the former : 
and the attempt of permanent cure must depend, therefore, 
essentially on the exact habits of living. Yet still, due import- 
ance should be assigned to those means which tend to improve 
the strength of the frame, and communicate tone to the sys- 
tem ; this benefit is eminently conferred by the Buxton bath. 
Those invalids who resort to the baths only for a season, and 
remain perhaps for a short space of time, render very slight 
justice to Buxton, and ought not to expect those lasting ad- 
vantages which are with certainty bestowed on the more 
zealous and constant visitor. 

A lady, aged 40, finding herself in a state of general de- 
bility, brought on by anxiety and fatigue, removed from 
Dublin to the vicinity of the sea-coast, where she had not 
the advantage of a machine, and she bathed with all the risk 
of exposure to the air. In this way she contracted an attack 
of rheumatism, which was most severe, affecting the upper 
and lower limbs, attended with much fever, great irritation 
of the nervous system, and, finally, with the total loss of the 
power of walking ; the attempt even of standing was so 
painful as scarcely to be endured. She had visited Bath, 
and used the baths there with great perseverance, but without 
any sensible improvement. On my examination of the limbs, 
I found considerable bursal swelling around the knees and 



ankles ; there was great stiffness, with tendonous rigidity ; 
but it was evident that any inflammation which might exist 
was ol the most passive kind, and therefore it did not appear 
objectionable that recourse should be had to the natural bath. 
It fortunately agreed perfectly, and was used in conjunction 
with shampooing. After some weeks, such an improvement 
was effected, as to allow of walking with some assistance. 
This lady returned to Buxton the next season, and finally 
recovered the use of her limbs. 

A gentleman, between 50 and 60 years of age, who had 
long been a martyr to gout, in his last protracted fit incurred 
a complete disability of the lower extremities, and had no 
other mode of taking exercise than being drawn in a chair, 
or using a carriage, into which he was lifted. He used a 
course of tepid bathing in the Buxton water, beginning at 
96°, and gradually decreasing it to 92°, for three weeks ; after 
which period he commenced with an immersion in the natural 
bath. This agreed perfectly, and he persisted in the use of 
the natural bath for six weeks, with such perfect success that 
he regained the comfortable power of walking. The plan of 
friction and shampooing was also employed. This patient 
was of so plethoric a habit, and so prone to congestion in the 
vessels of the head, that he found immediate and very sensi- 
ble disagreement from drinking the water, on every occasion 
that he made trial of it. 

A lady, of middle age, of the nervous temperament, but 
usually enjoying good health, dislocated her knee by a fall : it 
was quickly reduced ; but she suffered excessive pain, with total 
disability of the limb, for a fortnight. She experienced start- 
ings of the limb in a severe degree. Deep-seated inflam- 
mation ensued, and it was believed by the surgeon that the 
synovial membrane was much affected. The general condi- 
tion of the joint was so sensitive, that all the ordinary means 
of treatment appeared to aggravate rather than relieve the 

Having at length so far recovered that she could make use 
of crutches, she visited Buxton ; and, after the use of a few- 
tepid baths, entered on a course of the natural bath. The 
steady persevering use of it produced the happiest effects, 



and very gradually she obtained a sensible improvement. 
She returned to Buxton the following season, and finally 
recovered the use of the limb. The application of the pump 
was never admissible ; and friction also, unless used in the most 
gentle manner, excited irritation and pain. I do not believe 
that, in this case, any description of bath could have afforded 
such remarkable benefit as was derived from the natural 
water at Buxton. 

There are scarcely any complaints more afflicting in the 
sufferings which they produce, than the different forms of 
neuralgia, or painful affections of the nerves. I have wit- 
nessed many instances of the successful influence of the 
Buxton bath in cases of this nature, especally when cold and 
damp had been the exciting cause, and when the character 
of the nervous suffering was strongly rheumatic. 

A gentleman of the middle age, of delicate constitution, 
and of the nervous temperament, had undergone extreme 
fatigue at an election, and after great perspiration carelessly 
exposed himself to midnight air. He was shortly after seized 
with sciatica in one limb, and this was followed by pains in 
the femoral nerves of both thighs, and in the nervous branches 
supplying the muscles of the upper arms. He was so much 
deprived of sleep by intense pain, that he soon became re- 
duced in strength and flesh. 

In these circumstances, having taken various medicines 
without relief, he visited Buxton. He first used tepid baths 
without benefit, and, on the contrary, with a relaxing and 
injurious effect. He then had recourse to the natural bath, 
with the best result, as it acted most favorably as a tonic. 
But it was necessary to join medical treatment with the 
bathing. Belladonna liniment, well rubbed into the skin 
over the situation of the painful nerves, afforded much relief. 
He also took, with great benefit, first a bark saline draught, 
in effervescence with free doses of the black drop ; and 
afterwards medium doses of Fowler’s solution with the black 
drop. He finally quite recovered. 

In the case of a gentleman who suffered from nervous 
pains both in the upper and lower extremities, taking place 



with such suddenness and extreme intensity as to resemble 
tic douloureux, the natural bath produced excellent effects. 
On pressure of the upper part of the spine, he shrunk with 
exquisite sense of suffering, and sometimes this pressure 
produced immediate spasms of the muscles, chiefly in the 
arms. Acupuncturation at the spine, in conjunction with 
the heat of moxa, applied by means of a syringe, proved very 
useful. He took opium and camphor, and full doses of car- 
bonate of iron ; and, although he did not obtain a perfect 
cure, he left Buxton .very materially relieved from his suffer- 
ings, and much strengthened in constitution. 

Acute sciatica requires much preliminary treatment, and in- 
deed too completely disables the patient to allow of travelling, 
usually confining the sufferer eventohisbed; but, in the chronic 
form of the complaint, and especially when combined with 
lumbago, the natural bath, with the aid of pumping, in most 
instances proves highly beneficial. When the case has been 
of long standing, the good results to be expected can only 
be gradually obtained ; and it is always advisable to join the 
influence of medical treatment. In neuralgic cases, the 
pumping should be used cautiously ; for if applied intem- 
perately, in frequency or strength, the nerves become too 
much stimulated, and pain and very injurious irritation 

I should fill a volume, if I were to relate at length a part 
only of the various cases in which I have witnessed the 
highly curative powers of the Buxton bath ; and, on the 
present occasion, I feel it necessary to limit myself to a few 
further observations of a general nature. 

In no cases is the efficacy of fhe natural bath more strik- 
ingly shown than in restoring the patient from the debility 
and general lameness produced by acute rheumatism, due 
care being observed that all feverish action has passed away. 

In partial weakness of limbs, whether occasioned by dis- 
ease or by accident, the bath and the use of the pump are 
entitled to every recommendation. 

Many persons suffering from general weakness of con- 
stitution find great advantage from the bath; but, on the 


other hand, there are many with whom none but a warm 
bath agrees ; and some, to whom every kind of bathing 
proves unfriendly. 

In enlargements of the bursae mucosae (elastic swellings 
near the joints), unattended with inflammation, not painful, 
but productive of great weakness of the joint over which the 
diseased bursae are situated, the use of the bath is important, 
and still more that of the pump, which may, in most cases, 
be employed every day with great propriety ; and, when the 
lower extremities only are affected, this may be done without 
giving the patient the trouble of altogether undressing — such 
are the arrangements for this purpose. 

Respecting the internal use of the water, I have already 
stated, that, although many persons will drink it for a consi- 
derable time without feeling its influence in any other way 
than on the kidneys, others, in a very delicate state of con- 
stitution, experience from it effects equally marked and 

A lady, aged 20, had gradually fallen into a state of great 
constitutional debility, the stomach having so completely lost 
its tone, that the smallest quantities of food would disagree, 
producing a sense of weight and soreness, with occasional 
nausea. The usual stomachic medicines had failed to give 
relief, and many that were tried appeared to be injurious. 
Leeches and a blister had been applied without apparent 
benefit, and the complaint had otherwise been treated on the 
principles of opposing chronic inflammation. 

The drinking of the water at St. Anne’s well, the doses at 
first small, and gradually increased to the full quantity, suc- 
ceeded to admiration, and the patient improved in health in 
the most satisfactory manner. 

A gentleman, aged 50, who had undergone much bodily 
fatigue and mental anxiety, fell into similar loss of health as 
that just described, and derived from the use of the water 
an equal amount of benefit. 

Loth patients also felt a most sensible influence from the 
bracing qualities of the air. 

1 ) 



I cannot refrain from taking this opportunity of advocating 
the cause of this Institution, which is so great a blessing to 
the afflicted poor, and which so well deserves the fostering 
protection of the affluent and humane. 

As the Physician of the Charity, I can bear my ample and 
cordial testimony to its excellent purposes, and to the large 
benefits which it confers; and upon this subject I cannot, 
I think, do better than annex the report which was drawn 
up at a meeting held at the Great Hotel on the 18th of 
September, 1830, Charles C. Western, Esq. M. P. (now 
Lord Western) in the chair. 

It was resolved “ that the following appeal to the public 
should be addressed, through the medium of their chairman, 
to the principal nobility and gentry in Derbyshire and the 
adjoining counties ; to gentlemen of the faculty ; and other 
persons throughout the country at large, who were likely to 
take any interest in the success of the Institution. 

“ The extent of relief to the unhappy objects of this charity 
is, in the first place, necessary to be laid before you ; and 
upon an examination, by the meeting, of the accounts of 
former years, I am enabled to state to you that, upon an 
average of the last four or five years, about eight hundred 
persons have annually had the benefit of the baths granted 
by the noble proprietor — medicine from the funds of the 
charity— and gratuitous advice from the medical trustees. 
Above four hundred of these persons have also received an 
allowance of five shillings per week for three successive 
weeks, the time in general considered to be sufficient, though 
in many cases a longer period would be highly desirable, if 
the funds of the charity would allow it. The number of 
patients admitted this year has not been reduced ; but the 
defalcation in the funds being to the extent shewn in the 
report of the annual meeting, it is evident that the further 
aid of the public is indispensably necessary to the continu- 
ance of that relief which the charity has been hitherto en- 
abled to afford. 



“ The reputation of these Springs has been long known 
and generally acknowledged ; but it is the strong opinion of 
this meeting that their remedial and restorative powers are 
by no means adequately appreciated by the principal inhabi- 
tants of the surrounding neighbourhood ; nor does it appear 
that they are even sufficiently known to the faculty in ge- 
neral, or to the country at large. But it is impossible lor 
persons who have been in the habit of visiting this place, and 
who have watched the rapid progress which the patients of 
this charity exhibit, from the lowest stage of disease to re- 
newed energy and health, without being convinced that the 
most important sanative effects are produced by the proper 
use of these Springs, in a great variety of cases. The si- 
tuation of this place is peculiarly calculated to furnish ex- 
amples of extraordinary and varied cases of disease, being 
within a short distance of the great manufacturing towns of 
Leeds, Manchester, Sheffield, Birmingham, Macclesfield, and 
Stockport. Multitudes, broken down by the confinement 
and unhealthy nature of their employments, come here mi- 
serable spectacles of accumulated disease, the greater portion 
of whom recover, in an almost miraculous manner, their 
health and strength, and are restored to their families and 

“ It is most material to observe, that the medicinal qua- 
lities of these waters are by no means confined to the cure of 
rheumatism and gout. In almost all cases of debilitated and 
broken-down constitutions, the effects of acute or chronic 
disease, climate or intemperance, as well as the unhealthy 
occupation of the workmen in manufacturing towns, the 
most beneficial results are experienced from the use of the 
baths, and the waters taken internally. The powers of the 
digestive organs are wonderfully restored: the skin being 
brought into a more healthy state by the hath, aids the relief 
given to the stomach by the water which is drunk, and thus 
a healthy action of the whole system is brought about, the 
patient is restored to his former vigour, and a condition of 
permanent health. 

“ The peculiar air of this place should not, perhaps, be 
wholly overlooked. It is elastic and dry, owing to the ele- 

D 2 



vation of the district in which it is situated, and its limestone 
soil. When rain falls, it is speedily absorbed ; neither leaving 
dampness nor moisture to depress the patients, or counteract 
that general bracing quality of the atmosphere so conducive 
to their recovery. 

“ It is submitted, that, upon these considerations, not only 
would it be a matter of serious regret that the funds of this 
Institution should fall off, but that it is most earnestly to he 
desired that we should be enabled materially to increase 
them ; and I trust you will feel that, with the hope of ac- 
complishing this object, the meeting, of which I have the 
honor to be the organ, is fully justified in making this special 

“ Were the salutary powers of these Springs more gene- 
rally understood, thousands among the higher classes might 
be restored to health and happiness ; and numbers of the 
afflicted poor returned to their families, again able and active 
members of the community.” 

The benevolent and distinguished individual who presided, 
signed this address, after expressing himself in the following 
words. “ In conclusion, — I venture to take the liberty of 
expressing my individual conviction of the correctness of the 
opinions herein given by the meeting. I have visited this 
place very often ; I have had abundant means of observation ; 
have watched the singularly beneficial influence of the waters 
in a great variety of cases ; and have in my own person re- 
peatedly experienced their efficacy in an eminent degree.” 


In addition to the tepid springs which are peculiar to 
Buxton, there is also a chalybeate, which rises from a bed of 
shale, on the north side of the river, behind the George Inn. 

It is a spring, not of strong impregnation, as the following 
statement will shew ; but it is a very pure water, and in- 
stances may occur in which its use will deserve recom- 
mendation. I have in some instances found it desirable to 



prescribe this water instead of St. Anne’s well, either by 
itself or as an adjunct to the bath ; but I must add, that the 
cases which call for such a preference, are not those which 
may with propriety be called Buxton cases. In those cir- 
cumstances of constitutional error and weakness, in which 
chalybeate remedies are proper, there will he every pro- 
priety in having recourse to this water, and in joining with 
its use some medicinal preparation of iron, if by itself it 
should, although agreeing well, fail to produce the desired 
benefit. For more extended observations on the present 
subject, I refer the inquiring reader to my account of the 
water of Tunbridge Wells; and proceed now to state some 
general chemical particulars of the Buxton chalybeate. 

The taste of the water is slightly and agreeably chalybeate. 

The temperature 54°. 

The specific gravity is 1 -0003. 


Tincture of galls in a few minutes produces a violet hue. 

Prussiate of potash, a light greenish blue. 

After boiling, or after simple exposure for a short time, no 
change of colour is occasioned by these re-agents. 

Nitrate of silver scarcely produces a change. 

Nitrate of lead no immediate change ; but soon a slight 
cloud appears. 

Solution of soap scarcely disturbs the transparency of the 

Lime water, no obvious change. 

Muriate of barytes, a slight cloud. 

Muriate of lime, no sensible change. 

Pure ammonia causes a very slight brownish precipitate, 
perceptible after standing. 

Carbonate of ammonia, a similar effect. 

Oxalate of ammonia, a slight cloud. 

From the effects of these re-agents, we may infer that the 
iron in this water is held in solution by carbonic acid. From 


comparative experiments which I made on a former occasion 
with the different springs of Tunbridge Wells, and Tun- 
bridge, I conclude that the proportion of iron in the water 
does not much exceed half a grain in a gallon. 

It has only a small proportion of carbonic acid. 

It contains a small proportion of the muriatic and sulphuric 
acids in a combined state. 

It is a remarkably soft water. 


Matlock Bath is situated two miles from the village of 
Matlock ; 22 miles south-east of Buxton ; 17 from Derby ; 
and is distant from London 143 miles. Until its warm 
springs began to attract notice, about the year 1698, this 
sweet retreat was only occupied by the rude cottages of the 
miners. At that period the original bath was built, and a 
house also for the accommodation of visitors. Other build- 
ing, as hotels and lodging houses, have since been erected ; 
and the place now affords every accommodation which can be 

Matlock bath is placed in a valley of the mountain lime- 
stone, close to the river Derwent, which at this spot is over- 
hung by mountain scenery of the highest order of picturesque 
beauty. The springs which flow into the Derwent, in many 
parts coat its borders with calcareous deposit called tufa , and 
which, with covering moss and vegetable matter, at length 
contribute to form a kind of embankment. Various sub- 
stances are thrown into these waters in their course to the 
Derwent, in order that they may receive an incrustation from 
carbonate of lime, which the water, on its exposure to the 
air, freely throws down. Hence the term of the petrifying 

Dr. Saunders quotes the following account from Dr. Short’s 
History of Mineral Waters. “ A number of springs issue 
from the limestone rock, all of them possessing the clearness 
and purity that distinguish mountain streams which rise from 
a clear rocky soil, but several of these possess a tempe- 
rature steadily above that of natural waters in our climate. 
The cold and tepid springs are singularly situated in this 
limestone hill. All the tepid waters arise from fifteen to 
thirty yards above the level of the Derwent ; whilst those 



both above and below are cold ; and even the sources of the 
latter intermix with those of a higher temperature.” The 
supply of water is very copious, and part is received into 
spacious baths, used for medical purposes, and which give the 
distinguishing appellation to this delightful spot. 


The sensible properties of the water differ but little from 
those of a common good spring, except that its temperature, 
which is 68°, is in taste approaching to tepid. It is beautifully 
clear, but does not sparkle much on being received fresh into 
the glass from the spring. The fountain consists of a hand- 
somely constructed vase*, of the Derbyshire marble ; and its 
form and neatness, together with the transparency of the water, 
offer a pleasing invitation to the invalid to take a morning 
draught of this pure beverage. 

The specific gravity of the water at 60 is 1 -0003. I had 
not an opportunity of making the examination immediately 
as it came from the spring. 


Litmus paper receives a reddish tinge, which disappears on 

By the water in a very concentrated state, turmeric paper 
was not affected ; nor did it change paper stained with the 
flower of the wild hyacyntht ; a remarkably delicate test lor 
alkali, and acting in the same manner as the violet. 

Lime water renders the water slightly milky. 

Solution of soap produces only a slight opalescence. 

* The pipe which conducts the water into the vase does not rise above half an 
inch from the bottom ; and when there is no water in it, th ejet d'eau rises several 
feet ; but when the orifice is covered by a stratum of water, it only bubbles and 
flows over. 

+ The hyacynthus non scriptus of Linnaeus, and the scilla nutans of the Flora 



Nitrate of lead, a dense cloud. 

Subcarbonate of soda, no change. 

Muriate of lime, no change. 

Carbonate of ammonia alone, no change ; but phosphate 
of soda being added, a slight cloud appears. 

Nitrate of silver produces an immediate cloud. 

Muriate of barytes, a dense cloud. 

Oxalate of ammonia, a dense cloud. 

Pure ammonia, no change. 

Tincture of galls, no change. 

From the effect produced by these re-agents, we are led 
to conclude that the water contains free carbonic acid, and 
some muriates and sulphates in sensible quantity. From the 
further indications, the bases may be considered as magnesia, 
lime, and probably soda. 

When the water is concentrated by evaporation, it deposits 
carbonate of lime, and is then but very slightly affected by 
oxalate of ammonia. From comparative experiments made 
with precipitants, for the purpose of obtaining a nearer esti- 
mate of the relative proportions of the different salts, it 
appeared that carbonate of lime was the most considerable 
ingredient, and that the other salts, which are certainly 
small in quantity, were in about equal proportion. It is 
obvious that a water so slightly impregnated as this of Mat- 
lock, requires, for its complete analysis, that a very large 
quantity of it should be evaporated, and much time and la- 
bour bestowed in executing the processes. For all medical 
purposes, the present chemical view will, I think, be found 
quite sufficient. 


I have only a brief account to offer of the medical pro- 
perties of the Matlock water, as an internal remedy. Dr. 
Saunders remarks, “ that it may be employed in all those 
cases where a pure diluent drink is advisable.” It may 
ti uly be stated that the water can never fail to prove a 
wholesome beverage; and that, in disorders dependant on 



the condition of the digestive organs, it may probably render 
some benefit. In gravel especially, I should expect advantage 
from it. I do not feel authorized to extol the water as a 
remedy in any particular class of disorders. Its purity, its 
agreeable temperature, and its freshness, ensure to the invalid 
that, while it is calculated to be in some measure useful, 
it will not disagree. The immediate impression on the sto- 
mach is more grateful than that occasioned by ordinary spring 
water ; is more tonic ; and, when attention to regimen is 
joined with a course of it, some decided advantage may be 
expected. This latter consideration must be allowed great 
weight, when applied to the case of the bon-vivant. The 
adoption of a plan which is positively correct, and the avoid- 
ing of habits positively wrong, will be an important salutary 
change ; and, hence, the pure draught of Matlock water in 
exchange for the feverish cup of wine (I speak of excess), 
will every day conduce to the improvement of the stomach, 
and of the general health. 

Half a pint of the water should be drunk an hour before 
breakfast, taking with it a small portion of biscuit. A walk 
or ride should follow. The same draught should be taken at 
noon ; and again an hour before dinner ; exercise being duly 
used after each quantity. 

The smallest measure of fluid which is convenient should 
be used at meals ; for otherwise, it is probable, disadvantage 
will arise from distension. The ordinary rules of medical 
management, as regards the regulation of the bowels, are 
of course to be observed. Any kind of aperient medicine 
will be compatible with the waters; but, as a general di- 
rection, I should advise it in the form of pills. 



At the two houses, called the Old and New Baths, there 
is one large bath ; each about 22 feet in length, and 15 in 
width ; but near the Museum, adjoining the Fountain and 
New Walk, is a bath about 30 feet long and 18 wide. The 
natural temperature of the water in each bath is 68°. There 
are several hot baths, and a shower bath ; so that a consider- 
able gradation in a plan of bathing is conveniently obtained at 
Matlock. In speaking of a complete scale of bathing tem- 
peratures, I may mention the following series. — The hot 
bath of Bath ; the tepid bath of Buxton ; the bath of Matlock, 
which is just intermediate between Buxton and the sea ; the 
sea ; and, lastly, the cold bath. 

The immersion in the Matlock bath at first produces a 
slight shock, but less than the cold bath, and it is soon fol- 
lowed by a re-action and an agreeable glow. Its use is often 
serviceable to a weakened frame, when the constitution is not 
in that state of debility which prevents the necessary re- 
action from taking place. 

It may be viewed as a promising remedy in certain states 
of muscular debility left by acute rheumatism ; but its tem- 
perature is rather too low to make it suitable for esta- 
blished chronic rheumatism ; and I should consider it, for the 
most part, inapplicable for a gouty person ; allowing particu- 
lar exceptions, which should always be well considered. 

In commencing with the remedy, the bath should not be used 
more than each other day, and afterwards two mornings in 
succession, omitting the third. The invalid who is incapable of 
swimming, or using much other muscular exertion, should not 
remain in the bath more than one or two minutes; and the 
more active patient should limit his stay to five or six minutes. 
It is always desirable to make a sudden immersion, falling 
forward, horizontally. The time of day should be before 
breakfast, or in the middle of the day, accordingly as the 


mawe’s museum. 

strength of the patient will allow ; the very delicate invalid 
obviously waiting till noon ; — and it should precede the drink- 
ing of the water at the fountain. 

The inhabitant of Derbyshire will find, as I am informed, 
a mild winter residence in the vale of Matlock bath, it being 
much sheltered on all sides from the cold winds. The tra- 
veller will be well rewarded for his labour in reaching this 
beautiful spot, where Nature, barren and rude in the sur- 
rounding country, has here assembled all the charms of 
scenery with a profusion of taste ; breaking on the view like 
enchantment, after the previous toils of a cheerless journey. 

My limits will not allow me to expatiate further on these 
beauties, or to enter upon any description of the natural 
curiosities of the situation. Mr. Mawe’s museum at Matlock 
bath is rich in a collection of the minerals and rocks which 
are found in the valley ; and its excellent arrangement 
renders it an interesting and fertile source of instruction and 


In the year 1816, when residing at Tunbridge Wells for 
the season, I directed my attention to the qualities of its mi- 
neral water. Finding that twenty-three years had elapsed 
since its former examination by Dr. Babington (whose recent 
loss the world has to lament), and an apprehension having 
subsequently arisen, that the water might possibly have suf- 
fered deterioration in consequence of the building of the baths 
near the spring, I was induced to submit it again to a chemical 

It is important to mention, that, in this analysis, I received 
the valuable assistance of my friend J. G. Children, Esq. a 
gentleman well known in science, and particularly distin- 
guished by his celebrated experiments with the most magni- 
ficent galvanic battery which has ever been constructed. 

What I now offer, therefore, is almost a literal reprint of 
my former publication. 

Tunbridge Wells is situated in that part of Kent called 
the Weald. The rocks in its neighbourhood are composed 
of a siliceous grit with a ferruginous cement, and belong to 
that series of beds which were deposited immediately before 
the chalk. In this part of the country, however, those beds 
are not covered by the chalk, which has been, most probably, 
carried off during one of those revolutions to which this 
planet has been subjected : but they may be traced passing 
under the chalk formation, along the bottom of the North 
Dow ns. his sandstone contains scarcely any fossil shells, 

I am induced to place the account of this water here, as I may have frequent 
occasion, in the course of the work, to make some allusion to its analysis. 



but frequently iron in such abundance, that, before the dis- 
covery ol the rich iron ore now procured from our coal 
works, this metal was procured in the Wealds of Kent and 
Sussex, where the remains of many ancient forges are yet to 
be seen. This ferruginous sandstone also alternates with 
thick beds of a tenacious clay, which forms a great part of 
the soil of this neighbourhood 


The spring, which is now the only one in use, rises into a 
large marble basin. The water overflows through an aper- 
ture into a channel connected with the chalybeate cold bath, 
depositing in its progress a reddish-brown precipitate. 


Exp. 1. — The temperature of the water, as it issues from 
the spring, is, in different seasons of the year, uniformly 50° 
Fahrt. In the coldest winters it has not been known to 
freeze in the basin. On the 8th of February, 1816, when 
the atmosphere was at 24°, the water in the basin was still 
at 50°. In the month of April, when I found some neigh- 
bouring springs, yielding common water and considered to 
be deep in their source, as low in temperature as 46° and 47°, 
this spring was still at 50°. In summer, the temperature of 
the water in the basin, near the surface, was raised a few 
degrees, in consequence of its free exposure to the sun’s 

Exp. 2. — In examining the spring at different periods of 
the year, to ascertain its strength of supply, I derived the 
following results. In August, 1815, it yielded, in a minute, 
one quart, two ounces, and five drachms. In the beginning 
of November, one quart. The summer had been unusually 
fine and dry. In October the season was wet. In the be- 
ginning of March 1816, the supply was increased to two 
gallons and a half in a minute. At the end of this month, 



the quantity was lessened to one gallon and seven pints. 
Much rain had fallen in the preceding months ; but the winter 
had passed away with very little snow. 

In the analysis of 1792, the specific gravity of the water is 
described “ as exceeding that of distilled water, in the pro- 
portion of 713 to 712 or as 1-0014 to 1-0000. 

Exp. 3. — In several examinations of the water in the 
month of August, immediately fresh from the basin, and at 
its natural temperature 50°, I found its specific gravity, com- 
pared with that of distilled water at 50°, as 1 -0007. 


The fresh water is perfectly transparent, and does not send 
forth air bubbles. It exhales a smell which is distinctly 
chalybeate. Its taste in this respect is strongly marked ; but 
is neither acidulous nor saline. It has an agreeable freshness, 
and is by no means unpalatable. 

Exp. 4. — I put some small fish into the fresh water, and 
found that their respiration was immediately much distressed. 
One of them, a lively trout, was the most visibly affected, 
and died in three hours. The others, which were chubs, 
survived and recovered. 


Exp. 5.— The water fresh from the spring, was exposed 
in a laige glass vessel, in an apartment of the temperature 
of 68°. It quickly exhibited a few air bubbles. In an hour 
a precipitation had begun, appearing in the form of a delicate 
white pellicle on the surface. This pellicle became thickened 
and shining in a few hours. In about six hours the water 
was faintly milky, and in twenty-four hours a slight brownish 
sediment had fallen to the bottom. In forty-eight hours the 
watei became transparent; the pellicle was increased and 
beautifully iridescent. A brown precipitate was deposited, 
partly on the sides of the vessel, and partly appearing in dif- 



iusecl flakes. The water suffered no further visible change 
on longer exposure to the atmosphere. 

Exp. 6. — Both the pellicle and the brown precipitate dis- 
solved in muriatic acid, without the slightest effervescence. 

Exp. 7. — The water contained in a corked vessel, under- 
went the before-mentioned spontaneous changes very slowly. 

Exp. 8. — In a vial almost filled with the fresh water, and 
immediately sealed, no loss of transparency appeared during 
two days ; but, at the end of six days, the brown flakes were 
abundant. Both in this and the preceding experiment, the 
pellicle on the surface was very slight. A transparent glass 
bottle, in which the water has been frequently kept, though 
carefully washed, retains a strong iridescent stain. 

Exp. 9. — Under the exhausted receiver of an excellent 
air pump, the spontaneous changes of the water took place 
much more slowly than when openly exposed. 


Exp. 10.— I immersed a thermometer in a flask containing 
the fresh water, and applied heat by means of a lamp. 

At a temperature of 58°, the water did not suffer any ap- 
parent change. 

At 60°, air bubbles became visible, and increased rapidly 
as the temperature advanced ; but no other kind of change 
appeared until the water became heated to near 150°, its 
transparency till then not being affected. 

At 160°, a faint milkiness was distinct. 

The temperature increasing, air bubbles were still disen- 
gaged, and the whole liquor assumed a brown turbidness. 
Together with the brown flakes, which on the cooling of the 
water coalesced and subsided, minute vegetable fibres were 
very apparent. 


Exp. 11. — Tincture of galls, dropped into the water, in- 
stantly produces a light purple hue, which in a few minutes 



becomes very deep. This, after an exposure to the air for 
two or three weeks, acquires almost the darkness and opacity 
of ink. 

Exp. 12. — Prussiate of potash, in a few seconds, strikes a 
light blue, which in a few minutes becomes azure, and, on 
longer standing, a fine Prussian blue is precipitated. 

Exp. 13. — The water concentrated by boiling, was not 
affected by either of the preceding reagents. 

Exp. 14. — Tincture of litmus added to the fresh water, 
instantly produces a light pink-red colour ; which hue gi'a- 
dually escapes, and in a day or two changes to a lilac. Litmus 
paper is slightly reddened, but, on drying, returns to its na- 
tural blue. 

Exp. 15.— The boiled water did not change the colour of 
the litmus tincture. 

Exp. 16. — Syrup of violets, after a few minutes, causes a 
greenish tint, which gradually deepens, and at the end of 
twenty-four-hours becomes a deep grass-green. Violet paper 
is not instantly affected, but on drying assumes the green 
colour. No effect is produced on turmeric paper. 

Exp. 17. — Oxalate of ammonia produces no immediate 
change ; but, in two or three minutes, the transparency of 
the water is impaired, and it gradually becomes turbid. 

Exp. 18. — Muriate of barytes produces an immediate 
slight cloudiness, with a few air bubbles, and a precipitate 
slowly subsides, which does not re-dissolve by nitric acid. 

Exp. 19. — Nitrate of silver occasions blueish-white streaks, 
and an abundant precipitate. 

Exp. 20. — A solution of soap in alcohol scarcely renders 
even the fresh water turbid. 

Exp. 21. — Lime-water instantly produces a faint milky 
hue ; and a light-brown turbidness immediately succeeds. 

Exp. 22. Nitro- muriate of gold, and nitrate of lead, oc- 
casion a slight disengagement of air bubbles, without impair- 
ing the transparency of the water. 

Exp. 23. — A few drops either of nitric, muriatic, or 
sulphuric acid, hasten the appearance of air bubbles ; and 
this is so remarkable with the sulphuric, that it resembles 




Exp. 24. — A current of sulphuretted hydrogen gas being 
passed into the fresh water, no discoloration is produced ; 
but if the experiment be made after it has been a short time 
exposed, it is rendered instantly black. 

Exp. 25. — An infusion of tea, in a few minutes, strikes a 
purplish lilac color. 

Exp. 26. — A clear infusion of coffee is rendered of a 
blackish hue. With cocoa or chocolate, no change of color 
appears to be produced. 


From the preceding experiments we derive the following 
conclusions; — but it should be remarked, that, with regard 
to the effect of reagents, the indications can seldom be con- 
sidered to possess more than general presumptive evidence. 

1. It is certain that the spring rises from a great depth, 
Exp. 1. 

2. That the state of the spring is considerably influenced 
by the seasons of summer and winter, Exp. 2. 

3. The near approximation of specific gravity, which the 
water possesses, to that of distilled water, is alone a proof of 
a small proportion of foreign ingredients, Exp. 3. 

4. That the water contains iron, and probably in no very 
slight proportion, Exp. 10, 11, 12, 25. 

5. That the iron is combined with the carbonic acid, ap- 
pears from the deposition of the reddish-brown precipitate in 
the basin, and along the channel through which the water 
flows, and from Exp. 5, 10, 13, 14, 24. 

6. That the carbonic acid is the only solvent of the iron 
in this water, Exp. 13. 

7. That the iron which exists in the water as a carbonate, 
falls down in its spontaneous separation, in the state of oxide, 
Exp. 6. 

8. That the free carbonic acid is contained in the water, 
Exp. 10, 14. 

9. That the water contains a carbonated earth, is proved 
by the effect on the color of violets {Exp. 16) ; which 
substance, as was suggested by Dr. Saunders, requires se- 



paration from the iron with which it falls clown, in order that 
the proportion of this metal in the water may be accurately 

10. That a carbonated alkali is not present, is indicated by 
the color of turmeric remaining unchanged, Exp. 16. 

11. That lime is present, Exp. 17. 

12. That the water contains combined sulphuric acid, 
Exp. 18. 

13. That it contains a muriatic salt, Exp. 19. 

14. That it is a soft water, is deducible from its low specific 
gravity, Exp. 3, and also from Exp. 20. 

15. That the water is free from animal matter ; and that 
the slight putrescence which it was found to acquire from 
confinement, when the pump was formerly in use, is referable 
to the vegetable matter which it contains, Exp. 22. 


Exp. 27. — To the boiled and filtered water, pure ammonia 
being added, after a few hours, a whiteish flaky precipitate, 
very minute in quantity, is seen slowly subsiding ; which, 
after remaining exposed two or three days, acquires a red- 
dish-brown color. 

Exp. 28.— This precipitate, being collected and dried, wtis 
fused with glass of borax, and the violet hue was produced ; 
being fused with pure nitre, a beautiful grass-green appeared. 
Prussiate of potash being added to a solution of the precipi- 
tate, a white precipitate instantly ensued. These results, 
therefore, were distinctive of the presence of manganese. 

Exp. 29. A portion of the ferruginous precipitate col- 
lected from the channel, and carefully dried at a very mode- 
rate heat, was treated with cold muriatic acid. It did not 
dissolve ; whence it follows, that the iron thus separated from 
its solvent, and exposed to the atmosphere, is in the state of 

In the former analysis, by Dr. Babington, it is stated, that 

the whole ochre collected by the filter proved, when dried, 
to be strongly magnetic .” 

E 2 



Exp. 30. I found that no effect could be produced by the 
magnet upon the ferruginous precipitate, either after being 
dried by a moderate heat, or being heated before the blow- 
pipe ; but, if heated with wax, it became strongly sensible. 


Four gallons and 12 ounces (wine measure) of the water 
were reduced by evaporation to three pints, and the ferru- 
ginous precipitate was separated. The remaining fluid was 
then evaporated to dryness. The solid matter, dried at 220°, 


Ferruginous 11-9 

Saline 19-6 



Or, per gallon 7-68 


A. 1. — The 19-6 grs. of saline matter were digested in 
80 grs. of alcohol of the specific gravity of 805-72. After 
standing about eighteen hours, the spirituous solution was 
separated from the insoluble matter, and the latter washed 
with a little fresh spirit. The solution and washings were 
then evaporated, and the solid matter, dried at 220°*, weighed 

* The apparatus used for drying the precipitates, by means of heated air, con- 
sisted of a double cylindrical vessel of cast iron, with an intermediate space all 
around, and supported on legs, so as to receive a lamp under the bottom. A 
hole was perforated in the middle of the lid, to receive a thermometer ; and the 
precipitate being placed on a stand conveniently adapted to the vessel, the heat of 
the enclosed air was easily regulated by the adjustment of the lamp. Double 
filters of equal weight were used, and the one dried with the precipitate as above 
stated, was again accurately weighed against the other. In the other analytical 
process described in this work, we gave the preference to the method of decanta- 
tion, employing small glass capsules, suffering the precipitates to subside, washing 



2-85 grs. The solution was slightly tinged yellow, from a 
little vegetable matter taken up by the alcohol. 

2. — The 2-85 grs. were decomposed by sulphuric acid, and 
evaporated, and the heat was raised towards the end, to expel 
the superfluous acid. The sulphate of magnesia was then 
carefully dissolved in a small quantity of cold water, and the 
solution separated from the sulphate of lime, which was again 
washed with a fresh portion of water. In this way a pretty 
complete separation of the two salts was effected, and the 
sulphate of magnesia, being evaporated to dryness, and heated 
to 220°, weighed T6 grs. ; which was found, by a separate 
experiment made expressly for the purpose of comparison, 
to be equal to 1 -22 of muriate of magnesia. This being 
deducted from 2-85 grs. leaves T 63 grs. for the muriate of 

B. 1- — The saline matter, insoluble in alcohol, was dried 
at 220°, and weighed 16-75 grs. It w’as digested in 134 grs. 
of distilled water in the cold for several hours, and frequently 
stirred. The solution was separated, and the residuum washed 
in fresh portions ot cold water. The washings and solution 
being evaporated to dryness, and heated to 220°, weighed 
1 1 *3 grs. and was common salt. On examination, however, 
it was found that some sulphate of lime was mixed with the 
muriate of soda. It was therefore redissolved, and mu- 
riate of barytes was dropped into the solution, as long as it 
produced any effect. When the precipitate had subsided, 
the clear liquid was separated, and the sulphate of barytes, 
which had formed, was well washed and dried at 220°. 
It weighed 2-15 grs. = 1-25 for the sulphate of lime; which 
being deducted from 1 1 -3 grs. leaves 10-05 of muriate of soda. 

The matter insoluble in cold water, being dried at 
220°, weighed 5-1 grs. This was boiled with 5 oz. of dis- 
tilled water, which dissolved the whole of the sulpate of lime, 
leaving only a small residuum, weighing -6 of a gr. This almost 

the matter with distilled water with the usual care, drying the precipitate in its 
c.ipsu e on sand heated to 212°, and finally weighing the same, first with its pro- 
cip'tate, and afterwards freed from it with due care, thus estimating the weight. 



wholly dissolved with effervescence in diluted nitric acid, and 
the solution gave an abundant precipitate with oxalate of 
ammonia. It was therefore carbonate of lime. The portion 
not dissolved by the nitric acid, weighed -02 of a gr. and was 
chiefly vegetable fibre, with some very minute particles of 
quartz sand. 


A. a. 1. — This precipitate (11*9 grs.), dissolved by the 
application of heat, in muriatic acid, with the exception of 
1 -8 gr. of a dark-coloured matter, which was found to consist 
of vegetable fibre, silica, and alumina. The two last sub- 
stances probably arose from some particles of dust acciden- 
tally blown into the basin from the walks, and mechanically 
suspended in the water. 

a- 2. — The muriatic solution was diluted with more than a 
pint of distilled water, and pure ammonia, cautiously dropped 
in*, till the solution very slightly restored the blue color of 
litmus paper, which had been reddened by vinegar. A co- 
pious precipitate of oxide of iron ensued. This was separated 
after standing some hours, and, when dried at 220°, weighed 
9-4 grs. 

a. 3. — The clear liquid of the last process was evaporated 
to dryness, and the muriate of ammonia sublimed. When 
the volatile salt was quite driven off, and no more fumes 
arose on the application of a strong heat, a small portion of 
matter remained, weighing about half a grain, which consisted 
of carbonate of lime, and a slight trace of manganese. 

The 9-4 grs. of oxide of iron being examined, by fusing a 
portion with pure potash, gave also indications of containing 
some manganese, but in quantity infinitely too minute to be 
estimated. The results of the foregoing analysis, therefore, 
appear to give, 

* This method was adopted for the purpose of attempting the separation of the 
manganese from the iron, according to the ingenious method recommended by 
Mr. Hatchett (Thomson’s Annals, vol. ii. p. 343), which appears to me the best 
that has been proposed. 


Of saline matter, 19-6 grs. consisting of, 

A. 2. Muriate of magnesia 1'22 

— lime 1'63 

B. 1. soda 10 05 

B. 1. & 2. Sulphate of lime 5*75 

2. Insoluble *02 

Carbonate of lime *58 


Of ferruginous precipitate, 11-9 grs. consisting of, 


A. a. 3. Oxide of iron 9*4 

a. 1. Insoluble 1*8 

A. 3. Carbonate of lime, &c "5 






Total 31-5 

Ditto, by processes, ... 30-95 

Loss -55 

From these data, one gallon of the water appears to con- 
tain 7-68 grains of solid contents, in the following proportions. 


Muriate of soda 2.46 

lime -39 

magnesia -29 

Sulphate of lime 1-41 

Carbonate of lime -27 

Oxide of iron 2-22 

Traces of manganese, insoluble matter, 

(vegetable fibre, silex, &c.) -44 

Loss in processes -13 


* whole contents of a wine gallon, according to the former Analysis of 
1792, are stated as follows : 



Or, stating the results according to the mode of computation 
of Dr. Murray, the following estimate will appear : 


Muriate of soda 1-25 

Sulphate of soda 1-47 

Muriate of lime 1-54 

magnesia -29 

Carbonate of lime -27 

Oxide of iron 2-29 

Traces of manganese, insoluble matter... -44 

Loss, &c -13 




A flask which, with its ground-bent tube, contained ex- 
actly four ounces and a half of the fresh water, was com- 
pletely filled by immersion in the basin. This water was 
gradually heated by means of a lamp, and the gas received 
over mercury. The boiling temperature was continued until 
no more gas came over. 

The mean of three experiments, performed in this manner, 
the necessary estimates and corrections being made by baro- 
metrical pressure, assumed at the standard of 30°, and for 
thermometrical temperature at 60°, gave, for the total quan- 
tity of gas, per gallon, 

Cubic inches, 13-3. 


Of Oxide of iron 1* 

— Muriate of soda 0'5 

— Muriated magnesia 2.25 

— Sulphate of lime 1‘25 


Cubic Inches. 

Of Carbonic acid gas 10 6 

— Azote '1' 

— Atmospherical air I'd 



For the separation of the constituent gases, the usual 
methods* were adopted; and, as the mean of the seveial 
examinations, the following results were obtained : 

Cubic Inches. 

Carbonic acid, per gallon 8-05 

Oxygen '50 

Azote 4-75 


Or, stating the two last gases differently, according to the 
proportions! into which they enter to compose atmospherical 
air, it will be 

Cubic Inches. 

Azote 2-75 

Atmospherical air 2*50 

It has already been shewn, by Exp. 10, that the water may 
be heated to a very high temperature, without the smallest 
separation of the iron. Being further desirous, with a view 
to medical considerations, to ascertain what influence would 
be produced on the proportion of the carbonic acid gas of the 
water; by the exact temperature of the Bath water, 114°, 
being applied to it, the following examination was made. 

The fresh water was heated by the lamp to 1 14°, and was 
then immediately transferred to the flask already described, 
it and the tube being filled. The remaining process w'as 
conducted, as in the former experiments, with the fresh 

The mean of two experiments, the due estimates and 
corrections being made, gave for total gas, per gallon, 

Cubic inches, 9-14 

* For the separation of the carbonic acid, lime water was the agent employed. 
The oxygen was separated by means of a solution of green sulphate of iron im- 
pregnated with nitrous gas. The residual gas was submitted to the power of the 
electric spark, and was proyed by its negative properties to be azote. 

t See these proportions stated in an excellent paper (the author Dr. Proul), 
“ On the Relation between the Specific Gravities of Gaseous Bodies and the 
Weight of their Atoms.” Thomson’s Annals, vol. vi, p. 321. 


The carbonic acid being separated in the usual manner, 
afforded as the mean, per gallon, 

Cubic inches, 6-32 

The following comparison, therefore, appears from the whole 

The mean of three experiments on the water at its na- 
tural temperature, gave of 

Cubic inches. 

Carbonic acid gas, per gallon 8-05 

The mean of two experiments on the water 
previously heated to 114° 6-32 

Loss by heat 1-73 

In reference to the variations in the quantity of supply 
which is yielded by the spring at different periods of the 
year, I have now to offer the results of comparative ex- 
aminations of the proportion of iron in the water, at the 
following respective intervals. 


In August 1815, a dry summer preceding, and the sup- 
ply of water in a minute being one quart, two oz. 
five drachms {Exp. 2.) of oxide of iron, per gallon... 2-29 
In the beginning of November, 1815, much rain through 
October, and the supply in a minute being one quart 
(according to the analysis which has been detailed)... 2-29 
On March 26, 1816, the supply in a minute being one 
gallon, seven pints 1-63 

It is hence shewn, that the strength of the spring, both in 
regard to its quantity of supply, and the degree of its chaly- 
beate impregnation, is not connected with occasional changes 
of the season ; but is to be referred to the gradual influence 
of the summer and winter upon the earth, which extends 
even to great depths*. 

* Since this analysis, I have made repeated examinations of the water. I found, 
in the very wet summer of 1816 , the impregnation of the spring considerably 






Tincture of galls, dropped into this water, immediately 
produces a slight effect, but much weaker than that of the 
Parade Spring. Making the comparison, I found that, m 
a few minutes, with the latter, the purple tint was very 
strong ; but, even at the expiration of half an hour, it was 
faint only in the former. 

A similar distinction of result occurs from the prussiate 
of potash. No immediate effect is produced, and, after many 
minutes, only a very faint light sky-blue appears ; while, in the 
parade water, the change is instantaneous, and, in a very few 
minutes, a deep azure blue is produced. 

One gallon of the water, procured in September 1815, 
being evaporated, and the ferruginous precipitate being se- 
parately obtained and dried at the temperature ol 220 , its 
weight was found to be IT gr. 


One gallon of this water, procured in the beginning of 

weakened, although it endeavours to make up in quantity of supply, in a given 
time, what it wants in actual strength. Thus, in the beginning of November 
1815, the spring yielded one quart in a minute. In October 1816, after a sin- 
gularly wet season, the supply in a minute was no less than three gallons and a 
half. Its impregnation was proportionably weakened. I find that, by compar- 

ing the effect of re-agetits with the water, both as to the time and degree in which 
they act, with the results from the same re-agents, as I used at the time of making 
the analysis, I can form a very good estimate of the strength of the water as a 
chalybeate, at any particular time. This is always convenient, as pointing out 
whether or not some pharmaceutical preparation of steel should be joined with 
the use of the water. 




November 1815, was evaporated, and the ferruginous preci- 
pitate was separately obtained, and dried at 220°. It weighed 
1-77 gr. 

In conclusion, I shall exhibit in one view a comparison of 
all the results which have been mentioned, with respect to 
the proportions of iron. 


Parade Spring, Analysis of 1792, of oxide 

°f h'on, p er gallon, 1 • 

Ditto ditto... August and November 1815 2-29 

Ditto ditto... March 26th, 1816 1-63 

Spring behind the Sussex, ditto... September 1815. ... 1-1 
Tile-House Spring, Near Tunbridge, ditto, Nov. 1815, 1*77 


It has with truth been observed by Dr. Saunders, in his 
General Treatise, that “ the most noted of the simple clialy- 
beates in this country, is that of Tunbridge Wells*.” 

It may with equal justice be added to this character of the 
water, that the mildness and Salubrity of the air, joined with 
the remarkable beauty of scenery in the surrounding country, 
render Tunbridge Wells a situation of resort for the invalid 
at once valuable and delightful. 

When it is considered how small a proportion of iron is 
contained in this water, in a quantity so large as a gallon of 
the fluid, and that the utmost portion thus taken by the pa- 
tient falls so far short of the dose which is constantly admi- 
nistered in the preparations of pharmacy, it becomes a natural 
and interesting inquiry to determine, whether its powers as 
a medicine have all the pretensions which it claims ; and how 
far the imagination may have contributed to the credit which 

* A Treatise on the Chemical History and Medical Powers of some of the 
most celebrated Mineral Waters, &c. 1800, p. 273. 



it has acquired. I wish to meet this question fairly, and to 
apply the conclusions which may result from the discussion. 

Some persons, I know, when in perfect health, have made 
trial of the water ; and not finding from it any notable effect, 
have most unjustly undervalued its power, which ought not 
to he expected to act in any very marked manner, unless on 
the invalid. An exception, however, presents itself to this 
observation ; as I can assert, from experience, that all persons 
in full health cannot make free use of the water with equal 
impunity. A plethoric habit, with vessels easily excited to 
strong action, would find it to be a very injurious stimulant. 

It is admitted universally, both by medical and chemical 
writers, that the most active form in which iron can be ad- 
ministered as a medicine, is in the state of solution by car- 
bonic acid. 1 have already shewn, in Exp. 10, that in this 
water the iron continues in perfect solution at a temperature 
a little beyond 140°, a heat full forty degrees higher than that 
of the human stomach. We may conclude, therefore, that in 
this state of perfect chemical activity, it exerts its agency, in a 
very direct manner, over the whole of the surface of the sto- 
mach to which it is applied. It is also probable, from the 
speedy and active diurectic power of the water, that the iron 
may partly find its way into the circulation in its entire state 
of solution. 

To the carbonic acid gas itself, a considerable and very 
useful influence may justly be assigned. The small propor- 
tion of the solid ingredients in this water, which detain the 
carbonic acid in union, enables that agent to exert its effects 
more directly and actively upon the stomach ; and for the 
same reason, namely, the remarkable purity of the water, 
we may further explain why its virtues as a chalybeate are 
so remarkable as they are found to be, with relation to the 
actual quantity of iron. 

The action which the azote may have on the stomach, is to 
be considered. 

The manganese which is present may probably, as a tonic 
astiingent, deserve some regard; but from any particular 
speculations on this question, I shall forbear. 

The saline ingredients, existing in the water in such mi- 



nute proportions as I have stated, appear, with the probable 
exception oi the muriate of lime, scarcely deserving of regard 
as medicinal substances. 

It is obvious, therefore, that this water is distinguished by 
the remarkable purity in which it possesses a solution of iron 
in carbonic acid gas ; and the investigation of its properties 
as a medicine, and the methods of its employment, I have 
now more distinctly to consider. It may be conceived that 
the most considerable, as well as the most immediate agency 
of the water is upon the stomach itself ; and that its im- 
pressions are secondarily communicated to the heart and 
arteries through the medium of the brain and nerves. Hence 
the powers and good effects of the water will be felt, ac- 
cording to the judicious preparation and fit condition of the 
stomach. This important point of attention is too much 
overlooked : and from this cause, from general erroneous 
management, and misapplication of the remedy on the part 
of the patient, many of the visitors of this Spring experience 
injury rather than benefit. Some instances of this kind have 
come under my own observation ; and many have been re- 
lated to me on the best authority. It is equally true, on the 
contrary, that this water, judiciously employed, is a powerful 
and very successful remedy in many diseases. 

A single dose of half a pint will contain, according to the 
analysis which has been given, and the statement made 
agreeably to Dr. Murray’s views, of solid ingredients, about 
ffc of a gr. of oxide of iron ; of a gr. of muriate of lime ; 
T § 5 of muriate of magnesia ; 1 § 5 of a gr. of muriate of soda ; 

of a gr. of sulphate of soda ; T § s of a gr. of carbonate of 
lime, and a minute portion of manganese ; and of gaseous 
ingredients, half a cubic inch (or a quarter of an ounce in 
bulk) of carbonic acid gas ; of a cubic inch of azote, and 
about the same quantity of atmospherical air. 

On all occasions, on entering on the use of this water, 
some aperient medicine should be premised. If more than 
such simple treatment be required, it constitutes a case in 
which further medical consideration would be necessary. 
The patient being favorably prepared, should take the first 
dose of the water at seven or eight o’clock in the morning ; 



the second at noon ; and the third about three in the after- 
noon. A small portion of biscuit, with the dose of water 
before breakfast, is to be recommended. In the middle of 
the day this is optional. However small the total quantity 
may be which is first employed, I am induced to recom- 
mend this frequency of repetition, upon the same princi- 
ples that we employ any diffusible stimulant in successive 
portions, where it is our object to render its effects per- 
manent. The exact quantity to be taken daily must of 
course be varied, according to the several circumstances of 
the age and constitution of the patient, and the nature of the 
disease ; — but, above all, according to the effects which it 
is found to produce on the individual. The directions of the 
women in attendance (who are named the Dippers) can only 
be of a general, and obviously not of a medical, nature ; but 
certainly, as far as relates to the quantity , they are always 
on the side of security, supposing that the case is not unfit 
for the employment of the water. 

It is very correct that every one should begin, and con- 
tinue, with a small quantity, for three or four days ; after 
which, if it perfectly agree, the total daily amount should, I 
apprehend, be larger than is most commonly employed. 

As a general statement, I would say that half a pint daily 
is the extreme smallest quantity, and that two pints daily 
is the extreme largest amount, to found a just expectation of 
benefit ; and, further, in the way of general outline of di- 
rection, I consider that half a pint, a pint, a pint and a half, 
and two pints, should ‘form the progressive ratio of the total 
daily quantity to be taken at the three intervals. As the 
patient arrives at the larger proportions, they may with ad- 
vantage be subdivided, with the interval of a quarter, or half 
an hour, which should be occupied in exercise. 

Those who consult their health in the best manner, should 
take exercise in the open air of the common, rather than in 
the sheltered parade, when the weather is favorable. I need 
not expatiate on the kind and degree of exercise, which mus 

be entirely relative to the convenience and strength of the 

An attentive regard to diet is strictly necessary. Tea at 



breakfast should be avoided, on account of the combination 
which its astringent principle forms with the iron in the 
water, as demonstrated in Exp. 25 ; and for the same reason, 
in a degree, the use of coffee also is not very correct. In the 
evening, however, either of these refreshments may be taken 
without disadvantage, as the water will long since have quit- 
ted the stomach. Bread and milk, or cocoa, or chocolate, 
may be taken at breakfast with propriety. The hour of 
dining should not be later than four or five* : and, with this 
arrangement, very slight refreshment only can be required in 
the middle of the day. It is hardly necessary to observe, 
that more than ordinary prudence should be pursued in the 
general diet, in order to give the best opportunity of efficacy 
to the water ; and, as a part of this plan, as little drink as 
may be convenient should be taken at meals. A want of 
caution in this particular, in addition to other bad effects 
which it may produce, will serve to weaken the stomach by 

In many cases the coldness of the water will have a salu- 
tary influence on the stomach. It is almost always judicious 
to allow it a fair trial at its natural temperature, and with its 
complete properties just fresh from the basin. If, however, 
after a sufficient trial, it should sensibly disagree, or should 
fail in producing the stimulating effects which are desired, its 
powers on the system will, probably, be found much increased 
by giving to it an addition of temperature. The failure in 
question will happen more especially in those constitutions 
where the circulation is languid ; where the skin, and feet, 
and hands are remarkably cold ; and where a great defect of 
nervous energy is altogether apparent. It is true that, by 
raising the heat of the water, rather less of carbonic acid will 
be taken in the dose ; but this loss will most probably be 
more than compensated, by the increased stimulant power 
which the chalybeate receives from heat. This observation 
will appear more consistent, when we refer to the former 
position, that, beyond 140°, the iron does not separate from 

* I would advise that not less than an hour should always elapse between the 
taking of the water and a meal. 


(j .3 

solution. By the Exp. p. 54, determining the loss of free 
carbonic acid, which the water sustains from the heat of 114°, 
the practitioner is enabled to determine the question for his 
patient, according to his own judgment. The agency of free 
carbonic acid is certainly not to be disregarded ; and, as being 
the solvent of the chief active principle which is administered 
in this water, its properties are more especially important. 
In some cases I have seen a very superior benefit produced 
from the water when taken cold from the basin, where I 
should have feared that it would disagree ; while, in others, its 
active and useful operation has been much assisted by heat. 
Dr. Saunders, in his general Treatise, commenting upon the 
activity of the oxide of iron as a medicine, when held in so- 
lution by carbonic acid, and assisted by high temperature, as 
in the Bath water, in which the greatest estimated proportion 
of iron is not more than one-sixth* of a grain in a gallon, 
remarks, “ May we not therefore conclude, that Bath water 
is indebted for its powers on the human body (independently 
of those of mere water at a high temperature) principally to 
the circumstances of a chalybeate impregnation, minute in 
itself, but much exalted in all its properties by a heat superior 
to that of most chalybeate springs ?” He adds, “ that the 
waters of the description of Tunbridge Wells are best heated 
by being put into a bottle well corked, immersed in hot 

It is evident that no advantage can be gained by corking 
the bottle an operation both tedious and liable to accident. 
It could not be completely filled and then exposed to heat 
with safety ; and when a free space is left in the bottle, as 
necessarily must be, the withdrawing of the cork allows the 
escape of all the lree carbonic acid extricated by the in- 
creased temperature, as completely as if its temporary con- 
finement by the cork were neglected. 

I recommend, therefore, as the most favorable mode, a 
thin glass flask, which, nearly filled with wafer immediately 

* Analysis of the Hot Springs of Bath, by Mr 

Mag. vol. xxiv, p. 342, 180G._This is the latest A 
most accurate. 

Richard Phillips. — Phil, 
nalysis, and doubtless the 



mebtcal ihstory. 

iiom the spring, is to be dipped in boiling water. The pro- 
pei temperature, and which should be ascertained by the 
thei mometei , is quickly communicated. This may range 
from 80° to 1 14°, as the patient may find it to agree. 

On the first employment of the water, either cold or warm, 
some inconvenient sensations very commonly arise, such as 
flushing of the face, slight fulness of the head with drowsi- 
ness, and an uneasy distension ol the stomach with more or 
less of flatulence. In general, these effects are not of im- 
portance, either in degree or duration, and are much to be 
prevented by previous attention to the stomach and bowels. 
If, notwithstanding this care, and the correct observance of 
general rules, the symptoms above-mentioned continue, the 
necessary inference is, either that sufficient preparation has 
not yet been made, or that the remedy is not suited to the 
case. Dr. Saunders expresses himself in the following words : 
“ The simple chalybeate produces no action on the bowels. 
When these are foul and loaded with sordes, the water often 
purges pretty briskly at first, but this operation ceases when 
the intestines are restored to their natural state.” 

I do not hesitate to affirm that, in the occurrence of this 
faulty state of the bowels, the use of the water should not be 
begun ; or, if taking place afterwards, that its continuance 
should be suspended, until suitable medicine has produced its 
proper effects. I may mention the following symptoms as 
certain indications of the necessity of some preparatory 
treatment ; a furred tongue, with heartburn, and occasional 
nausea ; unnatural discharges from the bowels ; and a turbid 
state of the morning urine, which, in a faulty state of the 
digestive organs, usually deposites, more or less copiously, a 
reddish or pink sediment, or one that is chrystallized and 
commonly denominated gravel. As a general statement, it 
may be added, that the employment of this water is improper 
in a very plethoric state of the circulation, and especially 
when this is connected with any degree of inflammatory 
action. Also, when there is an inflammatory determination 
to any particular organ, or even when local congestion exists 
without inflammation. In cases of simple debility of the 



constitution, the water promises to produce its happiest ef- 
fects. The proofs of its immediately agreeing with the 
patient, are, increased appetite and spirits ; and these au- 
spicious symptoms are followed by a gradual improvement in 
the general energy and strength. I was informed by many 
delicate dyspeptic patients, that they received a very sensible 
support from the water, so as often not to feel the necessity 
of the ordinary recruit of luncheon in the middle of the day. 
Active exercise, taken immediately after the water, produces 
with most persons a degree of general glow of warmth, 
occasioned by the increased circulation, which may be a 
consequence very much of a re-action succeeding to the im- 
pressions made on the stomach by the coldness of the water. 
The increased action of the kidneys is also a very favorable 
indication of the salutary action of the water ; and this effect 
is much promoted by an adherence to the proper rules of 
diet and exercise. 

To speak again of the importance of immediate exercise, 
in the praise of which too much cannot be said, it helps the 
water to sit lightly on the stomach, to quicken its absorption, 
and, in a word, to promote powerfully all its good effects. 

The bowels usually become constipated, and require the 
assistance of medicine. It appears to me preferable, for the 
most part, not to join purgative medicines in mixture with 
the water, lest the stomach be nauseated, but to give it at 
bed-time, in the form of pills. Those containing aloetic 
compounds (as for example, the pulvis aloes compositus formed 
with the decoctum, or the pilul. al. c. myrrh.), I have found 
to be the most beneficial. In some instances it may be found 
advisable to add 20 or 30 grains of sulphate of magnesia to 
the water, the salt being previously dissolved ; and if taken 
with each dose of the chalybeate in such proportion, its effects 
may be secured, without the nausea that would arise from an 
occasional and larger quantity. I must repeat, however, that 
the conciliation of the stomach to the water itself, should 
seldom be hazarded by the addition of any nauseous com- 
bination. Also, the admission of the water into the circu- 
lating system, which is probably a consideration of importance, 
would be much opposed by a strong purgative admixture. This 

F 2 



practice, therefore, appears to me correct, only in some cases 
of unfavorably astringent action of the water, together with 
a sensibly heating effect on the system. 

The propriety of employing warm or cold bathing, in co- 
operation with the chalybeate, must be entirely relative to 
the individual case, and cannot form a part of a general out- 
line of instructions. Dr. Saunders observes, on this point, 
“ It is frequently of eminent service to employ the warm 
bath occasionally ; and the propriety of this practice, 
strongly recommended by Hoffman, is amply proved by daily 

I cannot presume to offer an abstract of all the diseases 
in which the water might probably be found a remedy ; but 
a few remarks, partly deduced from my own experience, and 
in part collected from authors, may not be unacceptable. 

In dyspepsia, depending on debility of stomach, and ac- 
companied with general languor and nervousness, a course of 
the water is remarkably restorative ; and it deserves a similar 
recommendation, in the debility which is more or less con- 
sequent to an active plan of treatment for the removal of 
bilious complaint. 

In uterine debility, its tonic powers are very successful, 
both in improving the general functions of the organ, in les- 
sening painful irritation and general irritability, and in re- 
straining that inordinate action of the vessels which depends 
chiefly on their want of tone. Dr. Saunders, in reference to 
this point, and to the different forms of local debility thus con- 
nected, forcibly points out, that, as they are “ a very frequent 
cause of absorption or barrenness, these mineral springs 
have often been the means of removing such unpleasant cir- 

In chlorosis, as might be expected, the water is eminently 
useful ; but, from the languor of the system which so often 
accompanies this form of complaint, its employment requires 
much auxiliary, management. It is here principally that its 
powers will often be much assisted by giving to it the Bath 
temperature of 114 p ; by joining the occasional use of the 
warm bath, employed so as not to produce its relaxing effects ; 
by acting on the bowels with aloetic pills; and by enforcing 



a strict observance of the rules of diet and exercise ; of which 
last point of attention, the patient in these cases is generally 
too unmindful. It sometimes happens that, in this com- 
plaint, a feverish irritation exists, accompanied with occasional 
cough and pain of the side ; and certainly such symptoms 
demand removal, before the water can be entered upon with 

As a remedy for that kind of cutaneous complaint which 
is connected with weakness of stomach, and which is usually 
of the scaly species, this water, by its tonic powers, promises 
to be useful. Dr. Willan concludes the mention* of Tun- 
bridge Wells water, amongst others, “ as having been at all 
times particularly commended for their utility in the lepra, 
scaly tetter, and other cutaneous affections.” He observes, 
alsof, “ Chalybeate medicines are perhaps occasionally use- 
ful by removing states of the constitution, with which the 
scaly tetter seems to be connected.” It is, I think, just, to 
add my opinion, that the sulphuretted water of Harrogate, 
or even the saline waters of Cheltenham and Leamington, 
possess a greater efficacy in cutaneous diseases than this 
simple carbonated chalybeate ; although, where superior con- 
venience for its emploj ment does occur, it may deserve 
considerable confidence. 

In scropbula, the sea, in its different modes of employ- 
ment, has a much higher claim to our choice than a chalybeate 
water : yet, after a long trial of its powers, a change may, on 
many occasions, be usefully made to the mild invigorating air 
of Tunbridge Wells ; when the water also may be employed 
with great propriety, and with a prospect of much benefit. 
I am informed, by a medical friend, of one very satisfactory 
example of the kind, in which, taken internally, and also 
applied externally to an ulcerated surface, it was useful. 

As a stimulating diluent and diuretic, in addition to its 
tonic influence on the stomach, it bids fair, in conjunction 
with other treatment, to be useful in gravel, of which disease 
an unhealthy condition of the digestive functions is the foun- 
dation. I have had some convincing proofs of its beneficial 

* On Cutaneous Diseases, p. Ill f Ibid. 18 ‘,£. 



influence, under these circumstances. At the same time, 
the action of the bowels and the state of the secretions 
should receive due attention. The acid matter which con- 
tinually forms in the primse vise, in this disorder, should be 
neutralized by appropriate medicines. 

The employment of the water for young children is a 
much more questionable consideration than for adults. From 
the observations which I have attentively made, I am in- 
duced to draw a general conclusion, that, under six years of 
age especially, it is not a favorable remedy. The diseases of 
very young children are, for the most part, of a nature to 
require a distinct attention to the bowels ; to the progress of 
dentition ; and a judicious arrangement of diet, exercise, and 
sleep, with cold or tepid ablution, or bathing ; and do not, 
so far as I have seen, come within the useful influence of a 
chalybeate water. 

In respect to the necessary duration of a course of the 
water, it may in general terms be observed, that a shorter 
period than three weeks scarcely justifies the expectation of 
any material advantage ; and that a longer one than two 
months, or at the utmost three, is not required, to produce 
all the good effects of which it is capable ; so that its em- 
ployment has been fairly and judiciously managed. 

When, after considerable trial, the water, although it may 
have agreed perfectly, yet has appeared deficient in power, 
I have been induced to recommed an additional dose of steel 
from the Materia Medica. Two or three grains of sulphate* 

* It appears to me, that, in the medicinal exhibition of iron, it is most com- 
monly desirable to choose those preparations which have the greatest solubi- 
lity, and which may accordingly be esteemed the most active. The rust of iron 
(Rubigo ferri, Pharm. 1787) does not afford the least effervescent action with 
muriatic acid, and may be considered a red oxide, very insoluble, and little 
capable of being acted upon by the stomach. The ferri subcarbonas of the pre- 
sent Pharmacopoeia is but slightly affected by the addition of acids, and may be 
viewed as a carbonated oxide. The precipitate which subsides from a mixture of 
a solution of sulphate of iron, and of carbonate of potash, exhibits a strong 
effervescence with the acid. Hence it may be stated, as a conjecture, that, so long 
as the iron remains in the state of black oxide, it retains more in proportion of 
carbonic acid, and parts with it as it approaches to the state of red oxide. If a 
pharmaceutical preparation, therefore, of a carbonate of iron, on which the sto- 
mach may act with least difficulty, be attempted, Griffith’s mixture (mistura ferri 
composita), used when recently prepared, claims our preference. 



of iron, formed into pills with five or ten grains of extract 
of bark or gentian, taken with each dose of the water, I can 
mention from experience to be very useful ; and I may add 
another preparation, the tincture of ammoniated iron, in 
doses of twenty, thirty, or forty drops, mixed with the mi- 
neral water, as being a very successful auxiliary. 

It remains for future experience to determine and record, 
to what extent more complicated curative intentions may be 
effected, by joining the general or specific operation of other 
medicines to the given range of action belonging to this car- 
bonated chalybeate. 

In conclusion of my present subject, I may observe, that 
the most favorable period of the year for the visit of the 
invalid to this fountain of health, is from May to November ; 
both because this season affords the best opportunity of en- 
joying the very material adjuncts of regular exercise, of 
early rising, and of the full influence of the air ; and because 
it gives the important advantage of drinking the water in its 
highest state of impregnation. 



The villages of High and Low Harrogate are situated in 
an agreeable country, in the centre of the county of York, 
about three miles distant from the town of Knaresborougb, 
sixteen from Leeds, twenty from York, and 21 1 from London. 
The whole of the neighbouring district abounds with mineral 
springs of various qualities, but principally sulphuretted and 
chalybeate ; and Harrogate, in particular, has long enjoyed 
a high reputation by possessing valuable springs of both 
these kinds. Formerly the chalybeate water was the only 
one employed internally, whilst the sulphuretted was con- 
fined to external use. For many years past, however, the 
latter has enjoyed a large share of confidence as an internal 

Several sulphuretted springs are met with, in the state of 
open wells, on the boggy soil, at a short distance above Low 
Harrogate ; but they are less impregnated with the gas than 
the old sulphur well, as it is familiarly called. On the same 
level with this well, and not far distant, there are some 
springs of a similar character, but differing in strength. One 
of these is called the Crescent ; and there are now three 
pumps belonging to the Crown Inn, each supplying a strong 
sulphuretted water. 

The bog may be stated to consist of the remains of decayed 
vegetable matter, forming a black, fetid, half-fluid mass, in 
many places four or five feet in thickness, which every where 
rests on a bed of clay and gravel. From hence the water 
appears to pass under ground through strata of shale ; and, 
having undergone a natural filtration in ifs passage, it rises 
perfectly transparent to the surface. 

The mode in which the formation of sulphuretted hydrogen 



gas takes place, is a problem in the internal chemistry of the 
earth, which I cannot hope to solve. There are coal pits in 
the neighbourhood of Harrogate, and the probability may be 
suggested that the gas may be produced in the coal strata, as 
we know that it is formed during the making of coal gas. 
Water thus impregnated may afterwards traverse beds oi 
salt, and then rise to the surface of the earth. Dr. Garnet 
supposes that the gas may be formed from the decomposition 
of pyrites, or sulphuret of iron. He also suggests, as a pro- 
bable explanation, that the decomposition of vegetable matter 
furnishes hydrogen gas, and that this gas acts as a solvent 
to the sulphur. It does not happen that all bogs produce 
sulphuretted hydrogen gas. Might we not expect its more fi e- 
quent occurrence, if the explanation could be referred to the 
decomposition of vegetable matter ? 

The Old Sulphur Well is almost the only one of this de- 
scription now resorted to as a drinking water, and the various 
additional springs are in full requisition for the use of the 
baths. The supply of this well is very abundant, and proves 
sufficient for the demand of the fullest season ; allowing also 
of the exportation of a large quantity, in bottles, to distant 
parts of the kingdom. I commence my account with this 


This water, when first taken up, appears perfectly trans- 
parent. It sends forth a few air bubbles. It has a very 
strong sulphureous and fetid smell, which has been compared 
to that of a damp, rusty gun-barrel. To the taste it is very 
saline, and disagreeable from its strong impregnation with 
sulphuretted hydrogen gas, for which flavour I know no exact 
comparison. It is, however, a remarkable instance of the 
power of habit in reconciling the palate to the most nauseous 
taste, that persons in general very soon can drink this water 

* The water rises into a capacious stone basin, defended from the perpendicu- 
lar fall of rain by a dome raised on pillars ; a rude edifice, and very much de- 
manding improvement, both for the purpose of more neatness and ornament, and 
greater security from weather, 



without disgust. It loses its transparency when exposed for 
about two hours to the air ; at first acquiring rather a green 
hue, and after longer standing, by transmitted light, a slight 
reddish color. It gradually loses its sulphuretted taste, and 
then has the flavor of a strong solution of common salt. We 
found, by experiment, that the sulphuretted hydrogen gas 
undergoes decomposition by exposure. The oxygen of the 
atmosphere unites with the common hydrogen, and the sul- 
phur is precipitated in a state of minute division, the precipi- 
tate being of a light ash-colour. Hence the turbid appearance 
of the water. It is, however, extremely worthy of obser- 
vation, that this water, bottled at the spring, and immediately 
corked and sealed, retains its gas and all its virtues for a long 
time. I have examined bottles which have been kept several 
months, and the water appeared to possess its gaseous im- 
pregnation unimpaired. 

The temperature of the water is 54°. 

Dr. Garnett states the specific gravity of the water as 
1*0064. I found it, in different examinations at the spring, 
to be at its natural temperature 1*0103, but, at 60°*, 1*0101. 


Litmus paper was slightly reddened, but this tinge disap- 
peared on drying. 

Lime water produced a slight cloud. 

Acetate of lead, a copious dense precipitate, of a deep 
blackish-brown colour. With the boiled water it produces a 
white precipitate. 

Pure barytes, a light brown precipitate. 

Pure ammonia, a dense precipitate, of a light brown color. 

Subcarbonate of soda, a similar effect. 

Muriate of barytes, a slight cloud. 

Oxalate of ammonia, a dense precipitate. 

* I may here observe, that in taking the specific gravity of all the waters, I 
used a bottle holding accurately 1000 grains of distilled water at 60°, and em- 
ployed a balance which was quite sensible to the 10th of a grain. 


Nitrate of silver, a copious brown precipitate, with a shin- 
ing pellicle on the surlace. 

Tincture of galls does not immediately disturb the trans- 
parency of the water, but soon a beautiful iridescent pellicle 
appeal's on the surface, the body of the water not being 

From these effects, we may presume that the water con- 
tains muriatic and sulphuric acids, united to lime and mag- 
nesia, with a strong impregnation of sulphuretted hydrogen 


Of the gaseous contents. — A. Sixteen cubic inches of the 
water were made to boil for about fifteen minutes in a glass 
flask connected with a Woulf’s apparatus, into which a solu- 
tion of acetate of lead, with excess of acid, had previously 
been introduced. In this manner a quantity of sulphuret of 
lead was obtained, which, when edulcorated and dried, 
weighed 2-4 grs. This quantity may be stated as represen- 
tative of -951 of a cubic inch of sulphuretted hydrogen gas. 

B. To an equal portion of water, as was employed in the 
last experiment, a quantity of acidulated solution of acetate 
of lead was added, and the gaseous product made to pass into 
a Woulf’s apparatus, substituting, for the acetate of lead in 
the bottles, a quantity of lime-water. -7 of a grain of car- 
bonate of lime was deposited, representing -66 of a cubic 
inch of carbonic acid gas. 

C. The gaseous substances* contained in sixteen inches of 
the water, were collected in a graduated jar previously filled 
with water. The jar with its contents was suffered to remain 
inverted for many hours, during which time it was occa- 
sionally agitated, with a view to facilitate the solution of such 
portion of the gaseous matter as might be soluble in water. 
There remained -6 of a cubic inch of gas, which water did 
not appear to be capable of absorbing ; and which, when ex- 

* The corrections for pressure and temperature, as described at p. 56, were 
duly made. 



posod to the action of a solution of iron impregnated with 
nitrous gas, did not undergo any material diminution. 

D. A portion of the residuary gas obtained in the pre- 
ceding process, when mixed with oxygen gas in the propor- 
tion of one of the latter to two of the former, and fired by 
the electric spark in a detonating tube over mercury, was 
diminished from -30 to -22 of a cubic inch, the total bulk of 
the mixture before explosion being -30 of a cubic inch. Lime 
water thrown up into the tube became sensibly turbid, and 
the volume of gas was further diminished -05. The resi- 
duary gas possessed the characters of pure azote. 

Hence it would appear that the portion of gas, insoluble in 
water, consists of a carburetted hydrogen, and of azote, in 
nearly equal volumes. 

I may here mention that the gas which we collected from 
the open wells on the bog, which rises in bubbles through 
the water, on being ignited in a large jar, burnt with a lam- 
bent blue flame ; but a taper immersed in a narrow jar con- 
taining this gas was instantly extinguished. 

Of the solid contents. — A. A wine pint, or twenty-eight 
cubic inches of the water, slowly evaporated, yielded 106 
grains of solid residue, dried at the usual temperature of 
212 °. 

B. This product was digested in alcohol for several days, 
and a solution of part of the saline contents was obtained. 
This, evaporated to dryness, gave a quantity of solid matter, 
which, by exposure to air, deliquesced considerably, and 
became nearly all dissolved. The deliquesced mass was dis- 
solved completely in distilled water ; and the solution de- 
composed at a boiling heat by the addition of subcarbonate of 
soda. The precipitate thus obtained was treated by dilute 
sulphuric acid, and a quantity of sulphate of lime and sul- 
phate of magnesia was produced, equivalent to 3-5 grs. of 
muriate of magnesia, and to 4 grs. of muriate of lime. 

The fluid from which the earths were separated by sub- 
carbonate of soda, was neutralized by nitric acid, and then 
decomposed by nitrate of silver. A quantity of muriate of 
silver was obtained, equivalent to 3 grs. of muriate of soda, 
deduction being made for the proportion of muriatic acid 



necessary for the constitution of the two earthy muriates 
mentioned in the preceding section. The saline residue 
insoluble in alcohol was digested in distilled water, and the 
matter insoluble in this menstruum, amounting to 3 grs.was 
put aside for further examination. The watery solution was 
divided into two equal portions. The one portion was de- 
composed by a solution of subcarbonate of soda, and a preci- 
pitate of carbonate of lime was obtained, which, when dried, 
weighed -2 of a grain. 

The other portion of watery solution was treated in suc- 
cession by nitrate of barytes and by nitrate of silver Pre- 
cipitates were obtained of sulphate of barytes and muriate 
of silver, equivalent to -3 of a grain of sulphate of lime, and 
46 grs. of muriate of soda. 

The substance insoluble in water was acted upon by acetic 
acid, assisted by a gentle heat. A partial solution was 
effected ; which, by the addition of a carbonated alkali, gave 
a precipitate amounting to T9 gr. This precipitate, upon 
further examination, proved to be composed of T5 gr. of 
carbonate of lime, and *4 of a gr. of carbonate of magnesia. 

The residue insoluble in acetic acid was boiled in a solution 
of bi-carbonate of potash, and a further quantity of carbonate 
of lime was obtained, corresponding to -4 of a gr. of sulphate 
of lime. 

A minute portion of matter remained, which resisted the 
action of both acids and alkalies ; and, from being almost 
entirely combustible, appeared to be extractive matter. 

From this, the direct mode of analysis, the composition of 
the water appears to be, in one gallon, 

Of gaseous contents, 

Cubic Inch. 

Sulphuretted hydrogen 13-716 

Carbonic acid 9-529 

Azote and carburetted hydrogen... 5-800 
These last gases appeared to be in about 
equal proportions. 

29-045 * 

* In the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Institution, and subsequently in a sepa- 
rate pamphlet, an objection is offered by William West, of Leeds, against the steps 



Of solid contents, 


Muriate of soda 760 

lime 32 

magnesia 28 

Sulphate of lime 8 

Carbonate of lime 12 

magnesia ... 3-2 

(Loss) 4-8 


The composition of the water, if stated according to Dr. 
Murray’s method of computation, will be as follows : 


Muriate of soda 730-72 

lime 55-10 

magnesia 32-35 

Sulphate of soda 8-32 

Carbonate of soda 16-71 

Loss.... 4-80 


Dr. Garnett, in his analysis (the second edition of which 
bears the date of 1794), obtained the following results from 
a gallon, 

Of gaseous contents, 

Cubic inches. 

Sulphuretted hydrogen 19 

Carbonic acid 8 

Azote 7 


and the results of my Analysis of the gaseous contents of the Harrogate water. I 
believe both to be correct. With respect to the carburetted hydrogen, it may be 
observed, that, in order to arrive at any positive certainty of the accuracy of the 
results obtained by the eudiometrical experiment, it is important to be quite sure 
of the constitution of the gas under examination — namely, whether true carbu- 
retted hydrogen, or a gaseous mixture containing different proportions of the 
elements belonging to that gas. I consider that result, as stated p. 76, was the true 
one obtained by experiment, and not founded on theoretical calculation. 



Of solid contents, 


Muriate of soda 615-5 

lime 13 

magnesia. ... 91 

Sulphate of lime 00 

magnesia 10-5 

Carbonate of lime 18-5 

magnesia... 5-5 


The difference of result between the present analysis and 
that by Dr. Garnett, does not allow of easy explanation. 
A different mode of operating ; the particular season of the 
year at which the analysis is made* ; and accidental varia- 
tions in the water itself ; are circumstances which are all to 
be considered. The period which has elapsed since Dr. 
Garnett’s analysis, has brought about new views in che- 
mistry ; and, consequently, different estimates may have 
been formed as to the relative constitution of the salts. We 
do not obtain any sulphate of magnesia ; but, by Dr. Murray’s 
mode of computation, we have almost an equivalent quantity 
of sulphate of soda. Dr. Garnett has not taken any notice 
of the presence of carburetted hydrogen in the water. 


The water now under consideration unquestionably claims 
gi eat medical regard, it being an agent of decided power and 
efficacy ; and, when its complicated gaseous composition is 
considered, it may be pronounced to be incapable of imita- 
tion by art. It appears to have been in use nearly two hun- 
dred years, and its reputation, I believe, never has been 
higher than at the present moment. 

It is important that the patient, on his arrival at Harrogate, 
should use some treatment preparatory to the drinking of the 

The present analysis was made towards the end of September, 1819. 



water. One of a sanguineous temperament, and most cer- 
tainly if labouring under plethora, should lose a few ounces 
of blood, which may be taken from the arm, or by cupping, as 
circumstances shall indicate. The gaseous ingredients of the 
water are considerably stimulating, and, from the neglect of 
this precaution of moderately reducing the circulation in 
certain constitutions, it is apt to occasion some heat and un- 
favorable excitement. 

As a general rule, it will he expedient to administer a 
mercurial cathartic, consisting of a gentle dose of calomel 
and the compound extract of colocynth, in conjunction with 
the usual draught of senna and sulphate of magnesia. In 
any marked case of congestion in the circulation of the vena 
portarum, with a large abdomen, and a sluggish state of 
bowels, depending either on the deficient and defective 
quality of the bile, or upon the failure of its due excretion, 
it becomes important to pursue a course of the pilula hydrar- 
gyri and the colocynth extract combined, or the compound 
calomel pill with extract of rhubarb, every other night, upon 
an alterative plan. Or, if any circumstances in the constitu- 
tion of the patient forbid even this mild and guarded use of 
mercurial preparation, some suitable purgative pill will be 
the proper auxiliary. This water, it will be seen from the 
analysis, contains but a small proportion of the active ape- 
rient salt ; and, with many persons, fails to afford sufficient 
excitement to the bowels, so that some aid is absolutely re- 
quired. This aid is in general more usefully given by joining 
the use of a stimulating purgative pill, rather than by adding 
either the sulphate of soda or magnesia to the water, unless 
some particular circumstances in the case suggest the pro- 
priety of doing this. In many instances, also, it is our wish 
that the water should act more decidedly as an alterative, 
and not pass off rapidly by the bowels. 

The patient should rise early, and repair to the well to 
drink the water at the fountain head. The advantages of 
this proceeding are obvious. The medium dose may be 
stated to be three quarters of a pint taken at two draughts ; 
the first quantity being half-a-pint. Some exercise, more or 
less active, according to Ihe powers of the individual, should be 



used in the interval between the doses, which may be from 
twenty to thirty minutes. According to the age and consti- 
tution of the patient, and particular circumstances of the 
case, the doses now stated are to be exceeded or lessened. 
I conceive that the management of taking the water must 
entirely depend upon the nature of the case for which it is 
administered, and the consequent kind of effect which is 
desired to be produced. If taken with a view that it may 
act quickly and decidedly as an aperient, auxiliary means, as 
just stated, being used if necessary, the whole quantity 
should be drunk before breakfast ; but if, on the contrary, 
it be used more moderately as an aperient, and also as an 
alterative, the total quantity should be taken at twice ; the 
first and larger portion before breakfast, the second and 
smaller in the middle of the day. 

It is found useful, by way of conciliating the palate, to eat 
a small portion of spiced gingerbread, or of brown bread at 
the time of drinking the water. The action of the morning 
doses is best promoted by the use of black tea for breakfast. 
It may happen now and then, but I should believe but very 
rarely, that the stomach does not receive the water so well 
in its natural state of coldness. Under such circumstances, 
it may be a little warmed by the addition of a small quantity 
of boiling water ; but its gaseous properties are more perfect 
at its original temperature. 

A full course of the water may be stated to require from 
four to six weeks, observing, during this period, an occasional 
interval of a few days. It is satisfactory to mention, that 
the Harrogate water confers a great share of permanent 
benefit ; carrying on its good effects long after, upon the pa- 
tient who has suffered from habitual torpor of bowels ; and 
this, it must be allowed, is a result of great moment. I have 
before stated that this water bears removal and long keeping 
without any material diminution of even its gaseous proper- 
ties ; and, hence, the use of it may be continued, or resumed 
after an interval, when the patient has returned home. 

The application of sulphur is so familiarly associated, as a 
remedy, with the diseases of the skin, that Harrogate has 
usually numbered among its visitors a very considerable 




proportion of those who suffer from some form of cuta- 
neous complaint. Its use, however, is every year becoming 
more extended towards other disorders; and it is found to be 
an active and important agent in exciting the action of the 
liver, and thus bringing about more regularity of function in 
the whole alimentary canal. In this description of visceral 
torpor, its employment, in conjunction with the mercurial al- 
teratives before mentioned, becomes a valuable curative agent. 
As occasional treatment, when the bowels are very inert, 
Dr. Garnett recommends injections of the water. He men- 
tions that a course of the water very much tends to remove 
the troublesome symptoms of piles ; and this seems probable, 
when we reflect how much that complaint depends upon ob- 
struction in the circulation of the vena portarum, and upon 
costiveness. When the complaint, however, proceeds from, 
or is joined with, an irritated state of the mucous membrane 
of the rectum, the use of the water becomes more a matter 
of consideration. 

Of cutaneous diseases, it is in the order squamae of Willan 
(scaly complaints of the skin) and the species lepra and pso- 
riasis, that Harrogate water promises the most benefit. Dr. 
Willan gives his valuable testimony to its efficacy, when 
he remarks, “ I have seen some very obstinate cases of lepra, 
alphos, and psoriasis, completely cured by the proper use 
of the waters of Harrogate.” The efficacy of the water is 
much increased by conjoining the use of the vapor bath, 
which is made with the sulphur water. 

An elderly lady, who had suffered for a considerable time 
from lepra, had used baths of sulphurous acid gas, and taken 
various alteratives with great perseverance, without obtaining 
a cure, went to Harrogate by my recommendation, and en- 
tered on a regular course of the water and baths, with so 
much success, that she returned with a clear skin ; and, 
during the year which has since elapsed, has scarcely been 
incommoded by her complaint. 

When this disorder is of very long standing, the perma- 
nent benefit from a visit to Harrogate will not probably be so 
remarkable. In the case of a gentleman, affected with in- 
veterate psoriasis, of very long standing, the baths and regulai 



drinking' of the water, produced the most satisfactory amend- 
ment in the first instance ; but it was not lasting. I consider 
this to have been a case requiring the use of a specific alter- 
ative in conjunction with the Harrogate treatment. 

Patients labouring under these distressing complaints 
should return to Harrogate every season, in order to improve 
their chance of obtaining a permanent cure. 

I am led to believe that the water proves less successful 
than might be expected in the different kinds of acne; 
and in the species rosacea, or gutta rosea of authors, it is 
now and then decidedly hurtful, seeming to aggravate the 
complaint by its heating influence on the stomach ; for in this 
complaint the stomach is sometimes affected with chronic 
irritation, rather of an inflammatory nature, and very rea- 
dily is inconveniently excited by stimulating fluid of any 
kind. I have met with cases of the acne punctata in which 
the most persevering trial has been given to the Harro- 
gate water, almost without benefit. Dr. Bateman thus de- 
scribes* this disease — “The eruption, in this variety of 
the disorder, consists of a number of black points, sur- 
rounded by a very slight raised border of cuticle. These 
are vulgarly considered as the extremities of small worms or 
grubs, because, when they are pressed out, a sort of worm- 
like appendage is found attached to them : but they are, in 
fact, only concreted mucus or sebaceous matter moulded in 
the ducts of the sebaceous glands into this vermicular form, 
the extremity of which is blackened by contact with the air.” 

Harrogate water, as I have already stated, claims great 
regard as an alterative agent, independently of its purgative 
operation ; and this property appears to be due chiefly to its 
gaseous impregnation, which our analysis points out to con- 
sist not only of the sulphuretted and azotic gases, as stated 
by Dr. Garnett, but also of the carburetted hydrogen. In 
| clnonic obstruction of the liver, and of the spleen, a patient 
will visit Harrogate with almost certain advantage ; a mild 
mercurial oxide, with or without a purgative extract, accord- 

* Practical Synopsis of Cutaneous Diseases. 

G 2 




ing to the condition of the bowels, being used in conjunction 
with the water. 

Dr. Armstrong, in his able work on scarlet fever, measles, 
consumption, &c. extols in very high terms the powers of 
Harrogate water, in many forms of chronic complaint. In 
the following account he speaks with great enthusiasm ; and, 
perhaps, may be said to generalize rather too much. “ During 
a series of years, I have traced the operation of the sulphu- 
retted hydrogen gas from one organ of the body to another ; 
from the skin, joints, and eyes, to the viscera of the head, 
chest, and belly : and the sum of my observation authorises 
me to declare, that it is one of the most powerful antiphlo- 
gistic agents which can be found; for wherever the chronic 
inflammation be seated, it will more frequently remove it 
than any other single expedient which has hitherto been 
used and recommended by the medical faculty.” 

In other passages he alludes to the necessity of removing 
any active state of the inflammatory diathesis, as a prepa- 
ratory step to the taking of the waters. On this point I have 
already offered my sentiments. 

In gravel, the use of the water would, in all probability, 
be attended with much advantage. It acts very decidedly 
and very favorably as a diuretic. In cases of habitual depo- 
sition of lateritious sediment in the urine, I have witnessed 
the benefit which it has afforded. Indeed, such disordered 
action of the kidney as is manifested either by the chrystal- 
lized or pulverulent sediment, being for the most part se- 
condary, and referrible to primary error in the digestive 
functions, it may reasonably be expected that this highly cor- 
rective aperient should prove remedial. 



It appears to me that the same general principles which 
regulate the use of the ordinary warm hath, are applicable 
to the bath of Harrogate water, with, however, some addi- 
tional caution. It is to be understood, as a preliminary to 
the employment of the bath, that the patient is properly pre- 
pared in those particulars, relating to the constitution, which 
I have already stated, when speaking of the internal use of 
the water ; for the action of this water is considerably sti- 
mulating to the surface, excites more than the common warm 
bath ; and therefore it would be quite unsuitable in a feverish 
state of the habit. Dr. Garnett states, in very positive terms, 
that the skin absorbs the water, together with such substances 
as are dissolved in it ; and asserts that, “ besides the effects 
of the bath in cleansing the skin, and deterging the cutaneous 
vessels, a large quantity of medicated water is taken into 
the mass of blood, perhaps in a more active and less altered 
state than when taken in by the stomach.” To discuss this 
question at length, would engage me in physiological argu- 
ments too extended for the present inquiry. I do not ac- 
quiesce in the latitude of the above opinion ; but it is sufficient 
for our present purpose to know that the water used as a 
bath has a very marked operation on the system, more spe- 
cific in its nature than the simple warm bath. Enough, I 
conceive, is admitted to explain its effects, in considering that 
its strong impregnation with saline and gaseous matters 
causes it to act very decidedly on the sentient surface of the 
body, and indirectly by sympathy upon the internal organs. 

f or those patients who are afflicted with cutaneous com- 
plaint, it will in some instances be advisable that the bath 
should be used at night, shortly before going to bed ; and 
that, after being in bed, under circumstances when much 
freedom of perspiration is required, some warm diluting 
drink, as tea or gruel, should be taken. When a slight 
action only ol the skin is wished, the patient may bathe at an 



earlier hour of the evening, and go to bed at his usual hour ; 
being careful, however, to avoid the night air. I must here 
observe, however, that the patient who bathes in the evening 
should be careful to dine early, and make only a moderate 
meal. A warm bath used shortly after a late, and especially 
after a full dinner, is highly improper, and with persons of 
full habit may be an unsafe proceeding. 

In other disorders for which this bath may with much pro- 
priety be used, the proper time will be about an hour and a 
half before dinner, no unnecessary exercise being taken after 
bathing until the early part of the evening. The usual care 
of wiping the skin perfectly dry (so necessary in every kind 
of bathing), is to be duly observed ; and when the skin is 
the seat of complaint, very diligent friction should be used. 

The degree of heat of the bath* will require some varia- 
tion, according to the temperament of the individual, and the 
nature of the complaint. The range will be from 93° to 97°, 
and 95° may be mentioned as the medium degree. When 
the bath is used for the cure of cutaneous complaint, the 
temperature should be 95° or 96° ; and, for some patients, 
97° may be allowed. If used as a more general remedy to 
the constitution, or for the relief of gouty or rheumatic limbs, 
95° will most commonly be the highest temperature that can 
be useful. The degree which is prescribed should be kept 
up during the whole time of the immersion ; and the tempe- 
rature should be determined by the thermometer, and not 
by the sensations of the individual. The stay in the bath 
will be ten minutes as the shortest, and twenty-five as the 
longest period ; the longest time being allotted to the cases 
of cutaneous complaint ; and the shorter to patients whose 
general state of constitution is delicate. 

The frequency with which the bath is to be used, is an- 
other point of consideration. The repetition three times a 
week, or five times in a fortnight, may be stated as the aver- 

* We found, by experiment, that the best mode of retaining the gas in the 
water for the bath, is effected by mixing together one portion of the water boiling, 
with another cold. This method succeeds much better than heating the whole 
of the water up to the temperature required for the bath The water thus mixed 
gave almost as dark a precipitate with acetate of lead as the fresh water. 



age proper frequency. To use the bath two clays in succes- 
sion, and omit the third, will be the most frequent repetition, 
and twice a week the least, which, in this general kind of 
direction, can be laid down as a rule. 

The diseases requiring the employment of the bath are 
all those which have been mentioned as proper for its internal 
administration ; so that it is to he used as the auxiliary re- 
medy. In addition to the complaints which I have already 
enumerated when speaking of the well, I may mention that 
a gouty and rheumatic state of the limbs strongly claims a 
trial of the bath. It is calculated to afford considerable 
relief to the stiffened joints and muscles, if used with judg- 
ment and discretion. It is inadmissible when decided gouty 
action is present or even threatened ; and also when rheu- 
matic inflammation, however slight, is affecting the limbs, in 
whatever texture such inflammation may be seated. 

In some cases of remarkable stiffness of the joints and 
muscles, the sulphur vapour bath will deserve a preference. 
In the artificial sulphur bath used in London and elsewhere, 
the product ol the sublimed sulphur is sulphurous acid gas, 
and the whole is a hot air bath ; but watery vapor may be 
added, and this is usually done. 


Ihe pumps belonging to Mr. Thackeray yielded a water 
so much of the same apparent strength as that of the Old 
M ell, that it seemed desirable to examine their comparative 
degree of impregnation. We found that the water of the 
north pump, in particular, contained about the same propor- 
tion of sulphuretted hydrogen as the water of the Old Well, 
but the saline impregnation was considerably weaker ; and’ 
consequently, as a saline alterative and aperient, it has rather 
less power than the water of the Old Well. 

From Mr. Richardson, the highly respectable surgeon of 
Harrogate, I receive the following statement. “ Thackeray’s 
well (the Crown Well, as it is called) is every season more 
and more resorted to ; its appearance is more inviting ; the 



water sits lighter on the stomach, and its purgative qualities 
are little inferior to those of the Old Well.” A third pump, 
very lately built, appears to furnish a water of equal strength 
with that of the north pump, as evidenced by the quantity of 
precipitate formed by the addition of a given quantity of sul- 
phate of copper. Hence, therefore, although these pumps 
furnish a water more adapted to the purposes of bathing than 
any other of the sulphuretted springs in Harrogate, they do 
not appear to have quite an equal claim to regard with the 
water of the Old Well, as an internal remedy. 


This spring, many years ago, was held in such estimation 
by Dr. Garnett, that he bestowed a separate Essay on its 
virtues. If the analysis of that chemist was correct, it fol- 
lows, of necessity, that the spring has greatly degenerated 
in its properties. Dr. Garnett represented its specific gra- 
vity as 1-002; that one gallon contained of sulphuretted hy- 
drogen gas 13-6 cubic inched, and of carbonate of iron 2 grs. 
I derived the following results from my examination : 

Its temperature was 52-5. 

The specific gravity, 1-0008. 

The smell of the water, its taste, and the effect of the 
acetate of lead applied as a test, concurred to shew that it 
was but weakly impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen gas. 
Its low specific gravity is alone a proof of a slight impi-egna- 
tion with solid ingredients. Muriate of barytes produced a 
slight cloud. The tincture of galls indicated the presence of 
a small proportion of iron ; but, as a proof of the minute 
quantity, prussiate of potash scarcely produced an effect. 


This w-ater is, unquestionably, the second in importance 
among the various springs of which Harrogate has to boast. 
It is obtained for drinking by means of a pump, the whole ar- 



rangement of which is very neat. Since my former report, 
the defect in the construction of the pump, which caused 
the water to be flaky with iron when delivered, has been 

Its taste is strongly chalybeate, and also considerably, yet 
agreeably, saline. 

Its temperature 54°. 

The specific gravity of the water at 54°, was 1 ‘0053, but 
at 60°, 1.0046. 


Litmus paper was slightly reddened, the blue being re- 
stored as it dried. 

Turmeric paper, and that stained with the wild hyacynth, 
did not undergo any change of color. 

Acetate of lead produces a considerable precipitate, per- 
fectly white in appearance. 

Tincture of galls, an immediate lilac color, which soon be- 
comes intense. 

Prussiate of potash, instantly a light blue, which in a few 
minutes deepens into azure blue. This and the preceding 
test produce no apparent change on the boiled water. 

Solution of soap is slightly curdled. 

Lime water is rendered milky. 

Carbonate of ammonia produces a cloud, and, by the addi- 
tion of phosphate of soda, a considerable precipitate forms, 
which is both granular and flaky. 

Pure ammonia, and subcarbonate of soda, each a cloud. 

Oxalate of ammonia, a dense cloud. 

Nitrate of silver, an abundant precipitate. 

From the action of these re-agents, we infer that the water 
contains magnesia, lime, and iron, combined with muriatic, 
sulphuric, and carbonic acids. 


My time at Harrogate did not permit the opportunity of 
making the necessary series of experiments, to determine 



with precision the properties of the gaseous ingredients of 
this water ; but I may state, that the result of two experi- 
ments gave, for the wine gallon, of carbonic acid, 10 cubic 

A. One quart of this water was slowly evaporated to dry- 
ness in a glazed porcelain basin. 

B. The saline residue was digested in six times its weight 
of distilled water, in order to dissolve the salts soluble in that 
fluid, and this last solution was evaporated to dryness. The 
portion insoluble in water was put by for further examination. 

C. The saline compound obtained in the last process was 
digested with the assistance of a gentle heat, in alcohol, of 
the specific gravity 815. The alcoholic solution was eva- 
porated to dryness, and a deliquescent saline mass was ob- 
tained, which, by exposure to the atmosphere, became almost 
entirely dissolved. 

D. The deliquescent mass was completely dissolved in dis- 
tilled water, and the solution, when at a boiling heat, was 
decomposed by the addition of a sufficient quantity of sub- 
carbonate of soda ; the precipitate procured in this way, 
consisting of the carbonates of lime and magnesia, was 
thoroughly edulcorated by repeated portions of distilled 

E. The precipitate obtained in the last process was treated 
with sulphuric acid, -and a precipitate of sulphate of lime was 
formed, equivalent to 5| grs. of muriate of lime; and, by 
decomposing the sulphate of magnesia, which was also formed 
in this process, by subcarbonate of soda, 2-2 grs. of carbonate 
of magnesia were produced, equivalent to 2*475 of muriate 
of magnesia. 

F. The fluid remainining in process (e) was neutralized by 
nitric acid, and nitrate of silver was dropped in so long as 
any precipitate continued to be procured. The precipitate 
thus formed, when dried at 212°, weighed 32 grs., equivalent 
to 7-9 grs. of chlorine, leaving an excess of 2*57 grs. of 
chlorine beyond that proportion which is necessary to saturate 
the lime and magnesia obtained in the foimei piocess (d), 
and representing 4-3 grs. of muriate of soda. 

, G. The saline residue from which the alcoholic solution 
was separated in process (c) was dissolved in distilled watei, 



and the solution divided into two equal portions. I he one 
half was decomposed by the addition ot nitrate of silver, and 
a quantity of muriate of silver was precipitated, which, when 
collected and dried, weighed 86 grs. equivalent to 35-4 ot 
muriate of soda. Small quantities of the other portion ot 
watery solution were assayed by nitrate of barytes, and by 
oxalate of ammonia. A slight cloud was produced by each 
of these re-agents. To the remaining portion, therefore, 
nitrate of barytes was added' until it ceased to disturb its 
transparency. By this treatment - 4 of a gr. of sulphate of 
barytes was obtained, equivalent to -2325 of sulphate of lime. 

H. The insoluble residue left in process (b) was digested 
in dilute acetic acid, by which means a partial solution was 
effected ; and this solution, when decomposed by subcarbonate 
of soda, yielded a white earthy precipitate. This, by sub- 
sequent treatment with a boiling solution of oxalate of am- 
monia, gave 2-4 grs. of oxalate of lime ; and the remaining 
fluid was evaporated to dryness. The solid residue was 
heated to redness, dissolved in muriatic acid, and then preci- 
pitated by subcarbonate of soda, whence -2 of a grain of 
carbonate of magnesia was obtained. 

The residue insoluble in acetic acid was acted upon by mu- 
riatic acid ; and the muriatic solution was decomposed by the 
addition of pure ammonia : -6 of a gr. of oxide of iron was 
thus obtained. 

A small portion of matter, amounting to T of a gr. inso- 
luble in muriatic acid, was digested in a boiling solution of 
bi-carbonate of potash ; and when this solution was decanted 
from it, nitric acid was added ; but no solution could be ef- 
fected in this way. It was then boiled in a solution of caustic 
potash, in a silver crucible, to dryness, and the dry mass, 
when treated by muriatic acid, became nearly all dissolved. 
By subsequent evaporation, and washing with distilled water, 
a light gritty precipitate separated, which had all the charac- 
ters of siliceous earth. 

From these results, the composition of the water in its 
solid contents may be stated as follows: In a wine gallon* 

Dr. Adam Hunter, of Leeds, published an Analysis of this water in 1819, 


analysis of the water. 


Of muriate of soda 300-4 

lime 22 

magnesia 9-9 

Sulphate of lime 1-86 

Carbonate of lime 6-7 

magnesia *80 

Oxide of iron 2-40 

Residue, consisting chiefly of silex .... *40 


Or, stating the composition according to Dr. Murray’s 

views, the following results will appear : 


Muriate of soda 291-5 

• lime 29-35 

magnesia 10-80 

Sulphate of soda 1-94 

Carbonate of soda 8-07 

Oxide of iron 2-40 

Residuum, consisting chiefly of 
silex -40 



The analysis of this water will at once serve to shew, that 
its properties are all alterative and tonic in a high degree. 

and the following is his tabular statement respecting the solid ingredients. In a 

wine gallon. 

Muriate of soda 434 -00 

lime 30 00 

magnesia 13 -00 

Sulphate of lime 9-00 

Carbonate of iron 5 -00 

lime 3 -00 

Loss 2 -50 




It appears to me to be a water possessing an excellent com- 
bination of saline ingredients, and of oxide. of iron held in 
solution by carbonic acid. 

The muriates of lime and magnesia are substances of decided 
medicinal power, and are contained in the water in sufficient 
proportion to be allowed the claim of efficacy; while the iron 
is even in rather larger proportion than in the chalybeate 
water of Tunbridge Wells. In most instances, however, 
when desiring the full action of a carbonated chalybeate, I 
should be disposed to give the preference to the spring of 
Tunbridge Wells, on account of its slight impregnation with 
other ingredients, and its greater consequent capability of 
acting as a chalybeate medicine. 

I would offer the same general rules for the use of this 
water as for that of Tunbridge Wells, and therefore refer 
the reader to p. 63. I advisethat the patient take this water 
as a chalybeate, and that he increase the doses according to 
the degree of tonic and exciting action produced on the sto- 
mach and general system ; not looking to its aperient effect 
upon the bowels : for, if he proceeded with such a view, he 
would indiscreetly be taking too large a quantity of the iron. 
I repeat, that the principle on which the doses of the water 
are to be increased, is, with entire reference to its action as a 
chalybeate stimulant. It is true that this water, from the 
presence of its muriates, will not probably have the same 
restringent effect as the more simple chalybeate of Tunbridge 
Wells ; yet it may require the aid of medicine for the purpose 
of regulating the bowels ; and this aid will, in general, be 
most usefully lent by the employment of some suitable pill at 
bed time. 

I have all early stated that the Crescent water appears to 
have undergone, in the course of years, a remarkable change 
in its properties, being now very weak, both in its chalybeate 
and saline impregnation, and scarcely in any degree sul- 
phuretted. If, therefore, it be desired to prescribe the con- 
joined use of the sulphuretted and the chalybeate waters, 
this plan will be happily accomplished by desiring the patient 
to visit the Old Sulphur Well in the morning before break- 
fast, and this saline chalybeate spring in the middle of the 




day, the relative quantities of the waters being a point to be 
determined by the medical adviser, according to the nature 
of the case. 


Close adjoining to the pump which yields the saline chaly- 
beate, just now under consideration, a very pure spring has 
been discovered, which is simply chalybeate. Formerly, and 
I believe this to be the case at the present time, the water 
was not confined by any artificial arrangement, but presented 
itself freely rising up in a slight excavation made in the earth. 
The following concise description of its general properties 
appears to me sufficient. 

Its temperature is 55 °. 

The specific gravity at 60°, 1 -0003. 

Its taste distinctly, yet not very strongly, chalybeate. 


Tincture of galls immediately produces a light purple, 
which in a few minutes deepens considerably. Prussiate of 
potash immediately occasions a light-blue, which, in a few 
minutes, becomes rather stronger in its tint, but not deep. 
No effect takes place from these tests in the boiled water. 

Nitrate of silver produces a slight cloud. 

Muriate of barytes, a slight cloud. 

The moderate action of the two last re-agents, and the low 
specific gravity of the water, concur to shew that it is to be 
considered as a pure chalybeate ; the iron being held in so- 
lution by carbonic acid. 

I do not consider that the proportion of iron can exceed a 
grain and a half in the gallon ; and 1 conceive this to be an 
extreme statement of the quantity*. 

* I read with great surprise Dr. Hunter’s statement, that this water contains ten 
grains and a half of carbonate of iron in the gallon, which is double the quantity 
possessed bv the most active carbonated chalybeate of which we have any know- 





This spring is situated in Upper Harrogate, neai the 
Granby Hotel, and is enclosed by a building which serves all 
the purposes of security from weather, and is sufficiently 
commodious. The water has a pleasant chalybeate taste, of 
moderate strength. 

The temperature of the water is 54°. 

Dr. Garnett states the specific gravity as 1*0014. 


Litmus paper receives a reddish tint, just perceptible. 
Paper stained with the wild hyacinth is not changed. 
Tincture of galls instantly produces a violet hue, which 
soon becomes a light purple. 

Prussiate of potash is immediately, yet very slightly, af- 
fected. The blue tint is not deep*. 

Solution of soap scarcely disturbs its transparency. 

ledge. It is manifest that the above proportion is incompatible with the specific 
gravity of the water, which I examined twice, immediately at the spring. I 
made my investigation at the end of September, a period of the year when I have 
always found the water of Tunbridge Wells to be most strongly impregnated. I 
think it probable that some fallacy might have arisen with Dr. Hunter, from 
the circumstance of the water being always turbid, more or less, holding flakes of 
carbonate of iron in mechanical suspension ; and, unless the water is instantly 
passed through a filter, the mistaken result of an analysis is obvious. I would 
take the liberty of directing a similar observation to Dr. Hunter’s analysis of the 
saline chalybeate, which he states to yield 5 grains of the carbonate of iron for the 
gallon. This water, formerly, was very commonly pumped up flaky, requiring 
the filter. The extreme care observed in the process adopted by Mr. Children and 
myself, in estimating the proportion of iron obtained from the Tunbridge Wells 
water, is fully stated at p. 54 of this work. Except in errors which I must believe 
to belong to the analysis of these two waters. Dr. Hunter has written an able and 
entertaining essay. 

* In August 1820, I examined the chalybeate water of Tunbridge Wells, with 
galls and prussiate of potash. The color from the former re-agent was an intense 
purple; from the latter, a deep Prussian blue. The supply of the water was one 
gallon two pints and a half in a minute. The water, therefore, was not then in its 
D highest state of impregnation. See p. 46. 



Nitrate of silver produces a slight cloud. 

Muriate pf barytes, in a short time, renders the water 
slightly turbid. 

It is evident, from these experiments, that this water is 
very pure in its general composition, and that it has not a 
strong chalybeate impregnation. I should presume that it 
would be found to contain scarcely more than a grain of oxyd 
of iron in a gallon. 


This spring is situated in the forest of Knaresburgh, at a 
short distance from Upper Harrogate. It appears to have 
been discovered in the year 1571, and is recorded to have 
been the only mineral water known in the neighbourhood 
for a considerable time. It was named Tewhet or Tewit Spa, 
from the great number of lapwings which formerly frequented 
that part of the forest. The distance of the spring not being 
so convenient to the visitors of Harrogate as the Old Spa, it 
is now seldom used. Its properties are precisely similar to 
those of the Old Spa. Dr. Garnett allows it a yery minute 
proportion more of oxide of iron in the gallon ; but the dif- 
ference is too inconsiderable to deserve notice ; and I have 
merely given this brief sketch, that I might not make an 
omission in the list of Harrogate waters. 

Although this distant part of the North occasionally pre- 
sents the appearance of much wildness of country, yet Har- 
rogate and its vicinity can boast of a great share of interesting 
scenery ; and there are many objects of curiosity to tempt 
the visitor to make daily excursions. The air is bracing, and 
seems well suited to improve the health of the invalid; who 
may visit Harrogate with the fullest confidence of finding 
sulphuretted and chalybeate springs of superior virtues. 


Bath is situated 107 miles west from London, and 12 
east of Bristol. This ancient and elegant city is singularly 
favoured by Nature and Ai’t, whose joint co-operations have 
conspired to give it importance and celebrity. The beauty 
and peculiarity of its situation are perhaps unequalled by any 
town in England. Planted originally in the bottom of a 
deep and narrow valley, it continued for ages to be confined 
to the dimensions which the Romans had first marked out ; 
and, till within the last century, the ancient Roman walls 
(enclosing a space of about fifty acres) formed the bounda- 
ries of Bath. But the fashion and celebrity which it latterly 
obtained, induced many builders and speculators to extend 
the streets in all directions, by additional houses, which were 
instantly occupied upon completion. 

The country around Bath consists of lias and oolite lime- 
stone. With this latter the houses in Bath are constructed. 
They are remarkable for their exterior neatness and beauty, 
and being raised over the sides of the broad acclivity of 
Lansdown (which rises to the north) in irregular groups of 
streets, squares, parades, circusses, and crescents, they pre- 
sent to the eye an appearance equally singular, magnificent, 
and beautiful. 

The climate of Bath, like that of the whole of this side of 
the kingdom, is in general very mild and genial ; an advan- 
tage which is however somewhat counterbalanced by the in- 
convenience of a larger proportion of rain than falls on the 
eastern part of our island. The new town, indeed, from the 
great irregularity of its site, and the roughness of its soil, is 
very soon dry after the heaviest showers ; but then it-is ex- 
posed to all the west and south-west winds, which here most 




prevail. The lower part of the city is more sheltered by the 
adjacent hills. 

The mineral springs of Bath are the only natural waters 
which we possess that are at all hot to the touch ; all the 
other thermal waters being of a heat below the animal tem- 
perature, and only deserving that appellation from being 
invariably warmer than the general average of the heat of 
common springs. These waters, which have at first given 
celebrity to this spot on the banks of the Avon, and have 
been the means of erecting and supporting a splendid city, 
have long been eminently accommodated to the use of in- 
valids by the construction of elegant baths, pump rooms 
for the drinking of the water, and various other buildings 
calculated for convenience or amusement. 

There appear to be three principal sources of these waters, 
called the King’s Bath, the Cross Bath, and the Hot Bath. 
These springs all arise within a short distance from each 
other, at the lower part of the town, and not far from the 
Avon, into which the hot water flows, after having passed 
through the several baths. The supply of water is so copious, 
that all the large reservoirs used for bathing are filled every 
evening with w 7 ater fresh from their respective fountains. 

The sensible properties of the Bath water are the follow- 
ing. When first drawn, it appears quite clear and colourless, 
and remains perfectly quiet, without sending forth any bub- 
bles, or giving any sign of briskness or effervescence. On 
standing exposed for some hours, it becomes somewhat turbid 
by the separation of a pale yellow ochrey precipitate, which 
gradually subsides. The taste of the water deserves parti- 
cular attention, from some peculiarities that attend it. When 
hot from the pump, it fills the mouth with a strong chalybeate 
impression, without any particular pungency, and accom- 
panied with scarcely any kind of saline taste. On this ac- 
count, it is by no means disagreeable, and may be taken in a 
larger draught, without disgust, than most other waters in 
which the taste of iron predominates. As soon, however, as 
the water cools, even before any distinct precipitation ap- 
pears, the chalybeate taste is entirely lost, and nothing but 
the slightest saline sensation to the tongue remains ; or, 



rather, there is then no distinguishing difference between 
this and common hard spring water*. 

The specific gravity of the three waters, the King’s Bath, 
the Hot Bath, and Cross Bath, at 60°, examined by Mr. 
Children and myself in London, was found to be as follows : 

Hot Bath 1002-45 # 

King’s Bathf 1002-38 

Cross Bath 1002-31 

Mr. R. Phillips, whose elaborate analysis of the Bath water 
deserves particular regard, presents the following account of 
the temperature of the springs : — “ At the Hot Bath it is 1 1 7° ; 
at the King’s Bath 114° ; and at the Cross Bath 109°. — This 
statement does not exactly agree with what has been usually 
given as their temperature. These results were obtained by 
pumping the water upon the bulb of a thermometer, till the 
mercury ceased to rise.” He observes, “ that the springs 
may be considered as derived from one source, the tempe- 
rature varying by their more or less circuitous passage to the 

I found, in my examination of the three waters, precisely 
the same kind of effect from re-agents, and differing only 
in degree ; the Hot Bath affording rather more evidence of 
impregnation than the King’s Bath, and both these more than 
the Cross Bath — a difference very well corresponding w-ith 
the slight distinction of their specific gravity. I shall, how- 
ever, follow Mr. Phillips’s example, and confine my descrip- 
tion to the effects produced on the water of the King’s Bath. 

No change is produced by the fresh waterf, either upon 
litmus paper or that stained with the wild hyacinth. 

¥ I have borrowed these introductory observations from Dr. Saunders’s 

t Mr. Phillips gives the specific gravity of the King’s Bath, 1-002. 

+ With respect to the indications of iron in the water, I quote the following- 
experiments from Mr. Phillips : 

Prussiate of potash, no immediate effect : after some weeks the water became 
slightly green. 

“ Tincture of galls, immediately a peach-blossom red colour, and very soon a 
precipitate, which became dark purple by exposure to the air.” 

H 2 



Nitrate of silver produces a dense cloud. 

Muriate of barytes, an immediate precipitate. 

Oxalate of ammonia, an immediate dense precipitate. 

Subcarbonate of soda, a dense cloud, quickly forming a 
flaky precipitate. 

Pure ammonia immediately renders the water milky. 

Carbonate of ammonia produces a dense precipitate. — 
This was allowed to subside, and the liquor was filtered. 
Phosphate of soda was added to the clear fluid, and a granu- 
lar precipitate, which partly adhered to the sides of the tube, 
slowly formed. 

From the effects of these re-agents we are led to the con- 
clusion, that the water contains sulphuric and muriatic acids, 
united to lime and magnesia; and a small portion of oxide 
of iron, held in solution by carbonic acid, as stated by Mr. 
Phillips. The unexpected circumstance of finding the evi- 
dence of magnesia in water, which Mr. Phillips had stated as 
not existing in it*, naturally surprised me very much, and I 
felt the immediate necessity of extreme care in calling in 
question the authority of a chemist so justly distinguished. 
In conjunction with Mr. Garden, I instituted the following 
examination. Half a pint of the water was evaporated to 
dryness. The residuum was submitted to the action of al- 
cohol, in order that the muriates soluble in that menstruum 
might be dissolved. The alcoholic solution was evaporated. 
The solid matter was dissolved in distilled water, and then 
tested with pure ammonia, oxalate of ammonia, and the joint 
action of carbonate of ammonia and phosphate of soda. Ox- 
alate of ammonia just produced a cloud ; but the other re- 
agents afforded the most irresistible evidence of an abundant 
proportion of magnesia. 

Still determined to be sceptical of our results, for the rea- 
son already mentioned, I requested my friend Mr. Children 
to examine the water regarding the presence of magnesia. 
Pie adopted the following process, which I shall state in 

* Mr. Phillips, after the publication of my Analysis, with a just regard to 
science, made a fresh examination of the Bath water, and became quite satisfied 
of the presence of magnesia. 



detail, as it was the method employed in the examination ol 
all the remaining saline waters. 

The water was first considerably reduced by evaporation, 
and the solid matter, which became separated, was re-dis- 
solved in very dilute muriatic acid, added in the least possible 
excess. The lime was then thrown down by oxalate of am 
monia, and removed by the filter ; very thin and pure paper 
being used. The clear liquor was evaporated to dryness, 
and the solid residuum exposed to a red heat, till the excess 
of oxalate of ammonia was entirely driven off, and the char- 
coal burnt away. The remaining salt was then re-dissolved 
in dilute muriatic acid, and the magnesia thrown down in the 
state of triple phosphate, by first adding phosphate of soda, 
and then pure ammonia in excess*. The precipitate col- 
lected in the filter was dried (with the counterpoise paper) 
at any temperature between 212 p and 220°, and weighed. 
As much was then scraped off the filter as could be con- 
veniently collected, and heated red. From the quantity 
of phosphate of magnesia thus obtained, that which the 
whole quantity of precipitate in the filter would have afford- 
ed (could it all have been collected) was estimated ; and 
from this, the weight of magnesia ; assuming the equiva- 
lent of phosphoric acid to be 35-33, and that of magnesia 
24-66 ; which numbers a previous experiment had proved to 
be correct. The fact that magnesia is contained in the water, 
and in a considerable proportion, being thus demonstrated, 
the only possible ground of doubt will belong to the question, 
whether the water was procured from the genuine source ? 
In reply to this very proper inquiry, I shall here take occa- 
sion to record my declaration, that, in supplying myself with 
the necessary quantities of the waters from all the watering 
places treated of in this volume, I exercised the utmost possible 
caution — the most conscientious and scrupulous care, that in 
every instance I should be furnished with the genuine water. 

* This succeeds better than the bi-carbonate, the lime being previously re- 
moved ; as the carbonic acid of this salt prevents a considerable portion of mag- 
nesia from falling down, unless the whole be boiled. This process also appears, 
from comparative experiments, to be still more favorable to the recovery of the 
whole of the magnesia than the one usually employed of boiling the water with 
either of the carbonated alkalies. 



Such solicitude in the security of my proper object, has 
placed me under much obligation to various medical friends 
resident at the respective places ; and as it would be incon- 
venient to enumerate so large a list, I trust that they will 
accept this general acknowledgment, as a sufficient expression 
of my grateful sense of their obliging attention. 

As the Bath waters, and all the remaining saline waters of 
which I have to treat, contain the same bases and acids, 
however differently combined, and therefore have required 
similar processes to be used, I shall, with a view to relieve 
my reader as much as possible from the dull details of che- 
mical statement, mention, once for all, the method which has 
been adopted to separate the component parts of the water 
under examination, by means of precipitants, according to 
the plan of analysis recommended by Dr. Murray. 

In most instances two ounces of water was the quantity 
employed, and this was not concentrated by evaporation un- 
less the water was of such slight impregnation as to require 
this preliminary step. For the separation of the sulphuric 
acid, nitrate of barytes was employed ; for muriatic acid, 
nitrate of silver ; for lime, oxalate of ammonia ; and, with 
respect to magnesia, the process has been already described. 

The usual laborious care of washing the precipitates, dry- 
ing them at 212°, and weighing them in a delicate balance, 
was of course observed. The composition of each water was 
estimated upon the following data : 

Chloride of silver, according to Dr. Woolaston’s scale, viz. 
1 00 parts =: to 24-62 chlorine. 

Sulphate of barytes, according to ditto, viz. 100 parts rr 
34-01 sulphuric acid. 

Oxalate of lime, according to a recent experiment of Dr. 
Marcet, viz. 100 parts of oxalate of lime, dried at 212 — to 
39 23 of pure lime*. 

The calculations for magnesia have already been fully stated. 

It is quite obvious that an examination of so many waters 
by the direct mode of analysis, would have demanded the 
undivided time and attention of a practical chemist. 1 he in- 

* Sec Phil. Trans, for 1S19, part ii. p. 196. 



direct mode by means of precipitants, serves every useful 
purpose for obtaining a medical knowledge of a water, it 
even it should not be thought the most eligible for perfect 
chemical accuracy. Certainly the mode of estimate so in- 
geniously pointed out by Dr. Murray, is admirably favorable 
to the consideration of a mineral water as a medical remedy. 
When, by means of the direct mode of analysis, a water 
yields sulphate of lime and muriate of soda, and not muriate 
of lime, the inference is drawn by Dr. Murray, that these 
ingredients are in part the result of double decomposition, 
and that to some certain extent, more or less, the elements 
of the salts existed in the water, as sulphate of soda and 
muriate of lime. Hence the physician is led to very different 
and important conclusions on the subject of the water as a 
medicine ; the muriate of lime being a valuable medicinal 
agent ; the sulphate of lime not entitled to any such praise ; 
and the sulphate of soda, however minute in quantity, lending 
some useful aid. Dr. Murray has illustrated the whole view 
of the question very ably, and I shall content myself in this 
place with thus briefly adverting to his opinions, resuming 
here my more immediate subject. 

The King’s Bath water, therefore, analysed by precipi- 
tants, and stated upon the principle just now detailed, yielded 
the following results as to its saline contents* : — in a pint, or 
16 ounces, as the mean of two experiments, 

Muriate of lime 1-2 

magnesia 1-6 

Sulphate of lime 9-5 

soda -9 

Mr. Phillips not only made an accurate estimate of iron in 
the water, but has also given an elaborate experimental dis- 
sertation on the influence produced by the presence of car- 
bonate of lime upon the indications of iron effected by tinc- 
tuie of galls and prussiate of potash. He represents that 

. The <l' ,a o nlit y of residuum obtained from one pint of the King’s Bath water, 
ned at 212°, was found, by two experiments, to be exactly 1G grs. ; which 
quantity, according to Mr. Phillips, loses 2 grs. when dried at a red heat. Some 
of this loss must doubtless be referred to the escape of carbonic acid, but the 
greater part to the loss of water. 



the effect of tincture of galls upon the protoxide of iron is 
heightened by the joint action of carbonate of lime ; but, of 
prussiate of potash, that it is weakened. 

The existence of silica in the Bath water was first detected 
by Dr. (now Sir G. S.) Gibbes ; but the quantity which he 
describes it to contain, was much larger than is assigned by 
Mr. Phillips ; the former gentleman making it nearly four 
grains in a quart, the latter only four-tenths of a grain. 

Respecting the gaseous contents of this water, I shall take 
the liberty of quoting Mr. Phillips’s results. The gas, which 
rises in the form of bubbles through the water, and with con- 
siderable freedom, he found to consist of one hundred parts, 
of carbonic acid 5, azote 95 ; but by careful experiment he 
ascertained that the water did not contain any azote in so- 
lution ; a fact which we might readily expect when we con- 
sider the high temperature of the waters of Bath, and how 
loosely this gas is held by water in solution, unless at a lower 

Borrowing, therefore, from a part of Mr. Phillips’s analysis, 
the complete chemical view of the water will be as follows : — 

In a pint, 

Cubic inches. 

Carbonic acid T2 


Muriate of lime 1'2 

magnesia T6 

Sulphate of lime 9-5 

soda ‘9 


Oxide of iron -01985* 

Loss, partly by carbonate of sodat ... -58015 


* About 3 of a gr. in a gallon. 

t It will be obvious, that, by the method which we adopted by precipitants we 
did not obtain the carbonates. Hence, part of the loss may be fairly referred to 



To embrace within the small limits which the allotted space 
in this Treatise allows, the character of a water which has 
already filled whole volumes, would be impossible ; but I 
shall endeavour to give a clear outline of its properties and 
uses, and I am induced to do this the more particularly from 
having discovered the presence of magnesia in the water as 
one of its most considerable, and I may add, one of its most 
important, ingredients. 

The King’s Bath water is the one most commonly em- 
ployed in drinking. It is rather more strongly impregnated 
with magnesia than the Cross Bath, as the statement of our 
results will shew ; but it appears to be not quite equal in this 
respect to the Hot Bath ; and the three springs are evidently 
waters precisely of the same nature, but differing, to the ex- 
tent mentioned at p. 99, in temperature ; and slightly in the 
degree of their impregnation. In the medical remarks 
which I have to offer, I wish to be understood as speaking of 
the King’s Bath pump, to which the most usual resort is had. 
In the order of my subject, I have first to enter upon the in- 
ternal use of the water. 

I shall endeavour to discuss briefly the medical character 
of the water, in reference to its chemical composition, before 
I present any details founded upon its known operation. 

In its gaseous impregnation, its power cannot be active ; 

soda, or rather carbonate of soda, which would be obtained as carbonate of lime 
by Mr. Phillips in the direct mode of analysis. The tabular view given by this 
chemist is as follows : 

In a pint. 


Sulphate of lime 

Carbonate of soda 

Sulphate of soda 

Carbonate of lime 


Oxide of iron 

Error -11985 




for it does not, as was stated by Dr. Saunders, contain azote 
in solution, and its proportion of carbonic acid is small. 

In judging of the medicinal nature of the solid contents, 
as resulting from Mr. Phillips’s analysis, by the direct mode, 
we should be restrained from ascribing any useful, certainly 
any considerable, influence to a single substance except the 
iron ; but upon Dr. Murray’s views, the water svill acquire 
higher pretensions. In his calculation he gave to a pint of 
the water 3’1 gr. ot muriate of lime*, and raised the propor- 
tion of sulphate of soda from 1-5 gr. to 5‘5 gr. Dr. Murray’s 
observations on the probable agency of the muriate of lime 
taken into the stomach with all the advantages of minute di- 
vision, and the aid of temperature in the solvent, are so truly 
applicable to my present purpose, that I cannot forbear from 
making the following quotation : 

“ Muriate of lime, it is well known, is a substance of con- 
siderable power in its operation on the living system ; in 
quantities which are even not large, it proves fatal to animals. 
When taken to the extent of six grains, the quantity of it 
which, according to the preceding view, exists in a quart of 
the Bath water, it cannot be inactive. It is very probable, 
too, that a given quantity of it will prove much more active 
in a state of great dilution in water than in a less diluted 
form, as in this diluted state it acts, when received into the 
stomach, over a more extended surface ; and, besides this, 
whatever effect may be due to the high temperature of the 
Bath water in aiding the operation of the minute portion of 
iron it contains, the same effect must be equally obtained in 
aiding the operation of the much larger quantity of muriate 
of lime. The conclusion, indeed, as to the importance of 
this effect, is much more probable with regard to the muriate 
of lime than to the iron ; for supposing the quantity of the 
former to exist in the Bath water which has been assigned, 
the dose of it taken in a quart of the water is not far from 
its proper medium dose, and is at least equal to one-half of 

* Dr. Murray did not know of the existence of magnesia in the water. If the 
whole of the muriatic acid were supposed to be combined with lime, the muriate 
of lime would be almost accurately 3'1 grs. ; according to my present analysis. 



the largest dose which can be given and continued without 
producing irritation ; while the dose of the iron is not the 
one-hundreth of that which is usually prescribed. Under 
the circumstances, therefore, in which the muriate of lime is 
presented in the Bath water, it is reasonable to infer that it 
must be productive of considerable immediate effect. 

“ The speculation is further not improbable, that, to pro- 
duce its more permanent effects on the system as a tonic, it 
is necessary it should enter into the circulation. In a dilute 
state of solution it may pass more easily through the ab- 
sorbents ; while in a more concentrated state it may be ex- 
cluded, and its action confined to the bowels. Hence the 
reason, perhaps, that in some of the diseases in which it is 
employed, scrofula particularly, it has frequently failed — its 
exhibition having been in doses too large, and in too con- 
centrated a form. And hence it is conceivable, that in a 
more dilute state, as in that in which it may exist in the 
Bath water, besides its immediate operation, it may produce 
effects, as a permanent tonic, more important than we should 
otherwise expect.” 

Dr. Murray mentions, in confirmation of his opinion, that 
he “found a mineral water of considerable celebrity in 
Yorkshire, that of Ilkley, and which in particular was held 
in high estimation as a remedy in scrofulous affections by 
several eminent medical practitioners, to be water uncom- 
monly free from all foreign matter, with the exception of 
very minute quantities of muriate of soda and muriate of 
lime.” He had the opportunity of observing, at the same 
time, proofs of its medicinal efficacy. 

I think it probable that Dr. Murray has over-rated the 
medicinal power of the muriate of lime existing in a water in 
such small proportion ; but yet the authority of his opinion 
is deserving of great respect. The muriate of magnesia, 
although a much less active substance than the muriate of 
lime, is of sufficient importance to receive its share of con- 

Mr. Phillips describes the iron to exist in the water in the 
state of a protoxide ; and this view I have no doubt is cor- 
rect, and that in such state of oxidation it is held in solution 



by carbonic acid. This seems evident from the impossibility 
of detecting any indication of the metal after the boiling 
of the water, or ordinary exposure to the air. I am at a 
loss, therefore, to explain the following observation of Dr. 
Murray: “ I may add, that the iron in the Bath water is pro- 
bably not in the state of oxide or carbonate, as has been sup- 
posed, but in that of muriate.” 

Regarding, therefore, the composition of the water, as 
stated in my table, page 104, wemay with confidence allow it 
a high claim as a medicine; and it is but just to add, that 
the indifferent estimation in which many medical practitioners 
have held the character of the water, as an internal agent, 
has been wholly founded upon erroneous and deficient infor- 
mation of its chemical composition. 

The quantity of iron is so small, that, except we view its 
power as being assisted by the circumstances already men- 
tioned, minute division and temperature of the water, we 
might be thought too credulous in assigning to it much active 
property. Having thus considered theoretically the medi- 
cinal qualities of the water, I proceed to inquire into the 
results which experience, that grand arbiter of every ques- 
tion, has shewn to be justly due to its high reputation. 

Dr. Falconer published the third edition of his Practical 
Dissertation on the Medicinal Effects of the Bath Waters in 
1807, and lay claim to an acquaintance of more than twenty 
years with their nature and mode of action. He has consi- 
dered their application in chlorosis ; visceral obstructions ; 
palsy, and as produced by various causes ; gout ; rheuma- 
tism ; colic of Poictiers (the painters) ; hypochondriasis, 
hysterical complaints ; St. Vitus’s dance; and lepra.” 

Sir G. S. Gibbes, in a Treatise on the Bath Waters, in 
1803, has written on its properties, and treated of their influ- 
ence in diseases, very much in the same order as Dr. Falco- 
ner. I shall endeavour to offer an epitome of the opinions 
of these authors, with such comments of mv own as my 
more limited experience and my general reasoning, founded 
on a knowledge of the properties of the water, can enable 
me to make. 

In 1822, an able essay was published by Dr. Barlow 



“ On the Medical Efficacy and Employment of the Bath 

In a separate dissertation upon any remedy, an author is 
naturally led into a partial praise of its efficacy. Dr. Falco- 
ner has the following strong passage on this point in his well- 
considered Preface. 

“ Those who have written specific treatises on the virtues 
of particular remedies, have contributed much to mislead the 
opinions of mankind concerning their efficacy. Medicinal 
substances seem to be selected rather as subjects of pane- 
gyric, than of impartial examination. Sometimes unworthy 
motives, and at others the caprice of prejudice, joined with a 
sanguine disposition of mind, have contributed to cherish this 
empirical presumption, and to corrupt the fountains of infor- 
mation derived from matters of fact, nearly as much as those 
that spring from the most fanciful theory. When we peruse 
the cases which have been the subjects of such trials, we are 
apt to think the character of the favorite remedy fully esta- 
blished, until melancholy experience replaces it in its true 
station, by teaching us, that it is possible, by florid description, 
amplification of success, and suppression of unfavorable 
events and circumstances, to mislead almost as effectually as 
by advancing a positive falsehood.” 

He recommends the water in those disorders of deficient 
nervous energy, which go under the general term of cha- 
chectic, and commences with an account of chlorosis. He 
found it, for the most part, a very successful remedy in this 
complaint, care being taken to avoid its employment when 
any feverish excitement, and especially if any hectic sym- 
ptoms, should be present. 

Sir G. S. Gibbes lends his testimony to the particular 
efficacy of the waters in this complaint. 

It is obviously a very appropriate remedy; and its favo- 
rable action will be materially assisted by the judicious use 
of the baths, at a higher or lower temperature, as the tem- 
perament of the particular patient and the circumstances of 
the case shall suggest. 

Of the use of the water in visceral obstructions, Dr. Fal- 
coner speaks rather in general terms, specifying its particular 



employment in “ that hardness about the region of the liver, 
and sometimes of the spleen, which often succeeds inter- 
mittent fevers, and was formerly attributed to the too early 
administration of the Peruvian bark, but is now proved to be 
the consequence of the disorder, and not of the medicine ; 
and frequently owing to the neglect of giving the remedy at 
the beginning of the complaint.” 

Sir G. S. Gibbes advises the use of the water in that con- 
dition of the liver in which its functions are remarkably 
inert from obstruction, unattended with any inflammatory 
action, and when the stomach is affected with dyspeptic sym- 
ptoms, dependant upon general want of tone in the digestive 
organs. A degree of jaundice attends this state of disorder, 
and the stimulus of the water has the praise, from these 
authors, of exciting healthy action in these important viscera 
in a remarkable manner. 

I am induced to think that the propriety of employing the 
Bath water in visceral obstructions, and dyspepsia, demands, 
in every instance, the most careful consideration. It is in- 
cumbent on us to view this remedy in the light of an active 
stimulant as well as alterative. These authors have very 
properly interdicted its application under any symptoms of 
an inflammatory nature ; but obstruction, as a general term, 
is, in my apprehension, almost an expression of objection ; 
and I would lay it down as a general rule, that the Bath 
water should not be employed in complaints of the abdomi- 
nal viscera while any absolute obstruction is actually ex- 
isting. As a tonic remedy, after the sufficient employment 
of regular medicines, it is entitled to our best confidence. 
It is always to be considered, in diseases of obstruction, that, 
if we stimulate the organs of circulation prematurely, it is 
most probable that we shall excite diseased rather than healthy 
action. We must restore proper function before we can, with 
any fair prospect of advantage, excite the unhealthy organ or 
organs to a greater degree of activity ; for, I repeat, if actually 
morbid disposition yet exist, and more especially if there be 
organic error, such increased action will be one of disease. 

In no state of complaint is this principle of reasoning 
more applicable than in the treatment oi palsy. Dr. Falco- 



ner and Sir G. S. Gibbes have offered very clear and judi- 
cious instructions upon the circumstances in this disease 
which authorise, and those which forbid, the employment of 
the water ; but no written general instructions can supersede 
the strict necessity of a distinct investigation into the causes 
of symptoms in every individual case. Do they pi’oceed from 
apoplexy having actually preceded the paralysis, or from a 
condition of vessels bordering upon apoplexy ? — Do they pro- 
ceed from disease of structure in any part of the vertebral 
column, or from disease in the spinal marrow itself? Or 
does an extreme atony exist from the influence of causes 
which have impaired the energy of the brain and nerves, and 
produced a palsied state of some particular part of the body, 
which may have been weaker than other parts in its original 
conformation, and therefore more predisposed to loss of 
healthy power ? — From these premises the obvious conclusion 
follows, that the use of the Bath water is to be considered in 
the character of an active stimulus, and is contra-indicated, 
except as a remedy for the remote effects of the diseases 
just mentioned, and even then is to be employed with every 
circumspection in regard to the existence of remaining 
obstruction and plethora. 

In certain states of dyspepsia, distinguished by symptoms 
of debility of the stomach, the stimulating and tonic influence 
of this water may be expected to produce the most beneficial 
effects. But, even in dyspepsia, it should be our care to dis- 
criminate between the semblance and the reality of weak- 
ness. Loss of appetite and impaired digestive power may 
arise from chronic inflammatory action, or irritation of the 
mucous membrane bordering upon it, requiring appropriate 
treatment, and constituting a case for which the stimulus of 
Bath water would lie highly improper. 

In those consequences of gout which are marked by 
various signs of debility, the waters of Bath have gained the 
reputation of being almost specifically useful. Dr. Saunders 
remarks, “In gout, the greatest benefit is derived from this 
water in those cases where it produces anomalous affections 
of the head, stomach, and bowels; and it is here a principal 
advantage to be able to bring by warmth that active local 



inflammation in any limb which relieves all the other trouble- 
some and dangerous symptoms. Hence it is that Bath water 
’s commonly said to produce the gout, by which is only 
meant, that, where persons have a gouty affection shifting 
fiom place to place, and thereby much disordering the 
system, the internal and external use of the Bath water will 
soon bring on a general increase of action, indicated by a 
flushing in the face, fulness in the circulating vessels, and 
relief of the dyspeptic symptoms ; and the whole disorder 
will terminate in a regular fit of the gout in the extremities, 
which is the crisis always to be wished for.” 

Dr. Falconer observes, “ The Bath waters are well suited 
to that kind of gout called, by Sauvages, the winter gout, 
which is indeed the most common of any. This usually 
comes on towards the decline of life, and does not in general 
keep regular periods, but is subject to recur throughout the 
whole year, the summer months excepted.” He adds, “ this 
kind of gout is always attended with signs of weakness of 
the stomach and organs of digestion, such as imperfect con- 
coctions, and nervous irritations, flatulence, and want of 

Sir G. S. Gibbes has considered the use of the water both 
in gout and gravel. 

In my Treatise on Gout I have entered upon further con- 
siderations on the use of the Bath waters in this disease than 
my present limits will allow, and I shall confine myself to a 
few observations. 

I speak from sufficient experience, in saying that the Bath 
water, either employed internally or externally, is inadmis- 
sible when an active state of gouty diathesis is present — 
when the tendency to relapse is strongly established in the 
constitution, whether from the use of Eau Medicinale, Wil- 
son’s Tincture, Reynolds’ Specific, or similar baneful medi- 
cines, or from continued irregularities in living. Also, 
when plethora, a state of circulation easily excited to in- 
flammatory action, or evident obstruction in the vessels of 
the liver, are found to exist. As a general opinion, I would 
venture to observe, that a gouty patient should be restricted 
to any free use of the water, and perhaps to its employment 



altogether, unless debility of the stomach or nervous system, 
unattended by gout, prevail 5 or unless that kind of cbionic 
gout is happening in which it is to be desired that a fit, as 
it is called, should be excited for the relief of the consti- 
tution, which, under such circumstances, is oppressed with 
all the distressing symptoms of hypochondriasis. T must 
add, however, that cases of this description must be atten- 
tively studied, as to the question of visceral obstruction. 

I would here suggest, that, when the Bath water is found 
to be exciting in its effects, it might be tried as a mild alte- 
rative only, free from the more powerful influence which 
belongs to its chalybeate impregnation. Into such a remedy 
it is easily converted by taking the water after it has been 
exposed to the air for a few hours, and then warmed to any 
temperature which may be directed. In this state it will 
only have lost the oxide of iron and some of the carbonate of 
lime, and will retain the muriates, on which so much of its 
virtues may be stated to depend, in full proportion. 

Mr. Phillips found that the water had lost all traces of 
iron in its composition after being allowed to cool. * 

Dr. Barlow has given .an elaborate consideration to the 
plethoric state of the constitution arising from different states 
of the system, and has pointed out the conditions proper 
for the employment of the Bath water. I do not doubt that 
there are circumstances of irregularity of circulation con- 
nected with debility of stomach, in which the use of the 
Bath water, in conjunction with the administration of alte- 
ratives and aperients, may be indicated. Cases of visceral 
congestion can only allow a very cautious employment of the 
water, and its use at all should be well considered. It must, 
I conceive, also, require excellent medical discrimination to 
judge of the fitness of the water in febrile states of the sys- 
tem, and when the inflammatory diathesis is in any degree 

In order to convey some idea of Dr. Barlow’s views on 
this nice point of practice, I shall quote from him the follow- 
ing observation. 

“ The combination of stimulant remedies with depletion, 
is a part of medical practice that seems never to have been 




properly discussed, though frequently noticed incidentally by 
practical writers, and often conspicuous in the popular and 
empirical treatment of diseases. It is assuredly one of the 
utmost importance, and will, I trust, receive some illustration 
from the present work. 1 am the more anxious to bring 
this matter under consideration, because a misapprehension 
respecting it seems of late years to have had considerable in- 
fluence in causing the Bath waters to be withheld from 
patients manifesting any slight febrile symptoms, who might 
nevertheless have used them with the utmost advantage. 
This error appears to have arisen from trusting too much to 
speculative reasoning, without sufficiently regarding the evi- 
dence in favour of the salutary administration of these 
waters, which experience had so copiously supplied. Con- 
siderable light having been thrown on several diseases of 
excitement, formerly misconceived as cases of pure debility, 
in which course of inquiry the late lamented Dr. Parry, of 
this city, stands pre-eminently distinguished, it has been 
somewhat hastily inferred, that in all such cases, stimulants 
of every kind were improper ; and the Bath waters being of 
acknowledged stimulant properties, it was concluded that in 
such complaints they could be no longer admissible. I trust 
that, in the foregoing pages, I have afforded good grounds for 
questioning the correctness of this reasoning, and for believ- 
ing that both the febrile nature of such diseases, and the sti- 
mulant qualities of these waters, may be admitted, without 
justifying the conclusion drawn from them.” 

In rheumatism , the Bath waters are admissible only in the 
chronic form of the complaint. The internal use of the 
waters, when suitably employed in the particular case, will 
be remedial by improving the tone of the stomach and gene- 
ral system, and thereby aiding its external employment, 
which I shall have to consider more particularly when speak- 
ing of the baths. 

For the relief of the distressing consequences of the lead 
colic, commonly called the painters’ colic, the Bath water, 
used both internally and externally, promises to be a va- 
luable remedy. The restoration of tone in the muscular 
action of the bowels may probably be much assisted by its 



farther daily employment as an injection. At the King’s 
and Hot Baths, there is an apparatus for distending the 
intestines with the water by means of the pressuie of a 
column of water ; the fluid being propelled through a tube 
introduced into the bowels. 

Hypochondriasis and hysteria being disordered states of 
the constitution of a secondary nature, and dependant on 
many different causes, the use of the Bath water for then- 
relief cannot form the subject of my present consideration. 

Dr. Falconer speaks rather favorably of its operation in 
several cases of St. Vitus’s dance. Fie states “ that bathing, 
and pumping the spine of the back moderately, twice or tln-ee 
times a week, seemed to be the principal circumstances that 
led towards a cure.” 

In lepra, the Bath water appears, from Dr. Falconer’s 
report, to have been remarkably successful. The bathing in 
this disease is of the most importance ; but the water inter- 
nally may be expected to prove an active auxiliary. 

Having given this rapid sketch of the principal disorders 
in which the Bath water appears to claim most regard, I shall 
conclude, before proceeding to the notice of the baths, with a 
few remarks on the method of drinking the water ; and 
shall avail myself of the experienced opinions of the authors 
already quoted. 

Dr. Falconer states, that the waters, when drunk fresh 
from the spring, “have in most persons the effect of raising 
and rather accelerating the pulse, increasing the heat, and 
exciting the secretions ; that they promote the action of the 
skin and of the kidneys, and are also found to increase the sali- 
vary discharges. Hence,” he adds, “they are found, in cases 
where there is no tendency to fever, to quench the thirst 
better than any other fluid.” He remarks, that “ he has seen 
persons to whose stomachs they were particularly grateful 
and strengthening, who were debarred from their use even 
in small quantities, by their constantly exciting a fever after 
the use of them was commenced, although no apparent ten- 
dency to fever in the habit of the body had previously sub- 



For such patients I strongly advise a trial of the water on 
the plan and principle which I have suggested at page 113. 

Although so little material difference appears from chemi- 
cal examination to exist in the three waters, yet it seems 
reasonable to take into consideration the influence of tem- 
perature, notwithstanding that, in the opinion of some, the 
difference of a few degrees more or less is not of impor- 
tance. It is a point which must be determined by experience. 
In regard to the magnesian impregnation, the Hot Bath claims 
the preference. The waters from the three pumps yielded, 
by analysis, magnesia, which I describe as muriate of mag- 
nesia, in these comparative proportions ; from a pint, Hot 
Bath, 2-5 grs. ; King’s Bath, T6 gr. ; Cross Bath, 1-3 gr. 

Each of the waters being tested with the tincture of galls 
and prussiate of potash, in August, produced just the same 
effects as described, p. 99 ; but the Cross Bath appeared to 
afford, in a very slight degree, the most evidence of iron. 
Sir G. S. Gibbes remarks, that “ the Cross Bath water is ge- 
nerally considered to be the least stimulating and heating of 
the three ; and that the water of the Hot Bath pump appears 
less stimulating than that of the King’s Bath. He adds, “ I 
have known several patients who have been obliged to return 
to the use of the Cross Bath water, after trying the water of 
the King’s Bath, in consequence of the feverish heat excited 
by the latter ; and this, even though the smallest glass of the 
King’s Bath water had been substituted for the largest at 
the Cross Bath.” Upon this statement it would appear, that 
the influence of higher temperature must be considered as 
the cause of the difference in question. I should certainly 
expect rather the highest exciting power to be found in the 
water of the Hot Bath. 

It must be laid down as a rule, that every patient should 
consult his medical adviser as to his fitness of preparation 
for entering upon a course of the water. In saying this, I 
am strictly considering the welfare of the invalid, who cannot 
possibly have any judgment whether the case call for or 
allow the use of the water, or whether it should be preceded 
by a little reduction of the circulation by means of local or 



general bleeding ; or what aperient medicines may previously 
be necessary. 

Sir G. S. Gibbes rather objects to Dr. Falconer’s opinion, 
that the increase of the urinary discharge is a good criterion 
that the waters agree. He thinks that this indication is not to 
be relied upon, and that a stronger proof is derived from their 
occasioning a flow of saliva and allaying thirst. 

Although I am convinced that no patient should enter 
upon the use of the Bath water without previously obtaining 
medical advice, I may briefly mention the usual doses in 
which it may be taken. Half a pint twice a day, drunk at 
two intervals ; the first quarter of a pint an hour, or rather 
less, before breakfast, and the second at one or two in the 
day, may be described as the smallest quantity ; and a pint 
and a half, in divided portions, as the largest amount. In 
the use of this latter total quantity, the patient should subdi- 
vide the doses, using intermediate exercise for twenty or 
thirty minutes. 

The regulation of the bowels by suitable means, the plan 
of regimen and diet, and the conjoining any medicine of a 
general nature with the use of the water, are further points 
of consideration which will engage the judgment of the me- 
dical adviser in every particular case, and do not require any 
general observations. I hasten therefore to some account of 
the Baths. 

The public baths are three in number, the Hot, the King’s, 
and the Cross Bath. 

The temperature of the baths varies in different parts 
according to their proximity to the spring: — Thus the Hot, 
or Hetling Court Bath, near the spring, is about 106° ; the 
uniform heat of the general bath may be stated as 104°. 
The King’s Bath, nearly over the spring, or within the cir- 
cular railing, which is about two yards in circumference, 
100°, and at tbe entrance 98°, which I believe to be the gene- 
ral standard heat of this bath. The Queen’s Bath is in fact 
a part of the King’s, separated by an arch, as two drawing- 
rooms are by folding doors, and its temperature is two or 
three degrees lower. The Cross Bath varies from 98° to 

In dimensions, the Hot Bath is an octagon of about 21 feet 
in diameter. The King’s is about 65 feet in length, and 40 
in breadth. The Queen’s is a square, of about 25 feet in 
diameter. The Cross Bath is of irregular form, and some- 
what larger than the Hot Bath. They are all about 4 feet 
7 inches in depth. 

Each bath has a contiguous pump-room. There are 
douches in the three public baths, and a separate douche, out 
of the bath, at the King’s Bath. At the Hot Bath there are 
vapor and shower baths. The hospital patients and poor 
are generally sent to the Hot Bath ; but sometimes, when 
they require a bath of lower temperature, to the Cross Bath. 
The public baths are emptied daily ; the water which rises 
one day being discharged before the next, by drains into the . 
river Avon. The Hot Bath fills itself again in eight or nine 
hours; the King’s and Queen’s in eleven hours; and the 
Cross in seventeen. Hence a support seems to be afforded 
to Mr. Phillips’s opinion “ that the springs maybe considered 
as derived from one source, the temperature varying by their 
more or less circuitous passage to the surface.” The King’s 
Bath is stated to contain, when at its usual height, 346 tons, 


1 J 9 

2 hogsheads, and 36 gallons of water. The public baths, and 
a set of private baths, are the property and under the direc- 
tion of the corporation. 

These private baths are eight in number; four at the 
King’s, and four at the Hot Bath ; they are each nine feet in 
length from the top of the steps to the other extremity of 
the bath ; six feet six inches wide at the broadest part, an 1 
four feet seven inches in depth. Each contains about thirteen 
hogsheads of water. Those at the Hot Bath are rather the 
largest, and contain two or three hogsheads more than the 
King’s private baths. 

There is also another establishment of private baths, with 
a pump-room, called the Kingston baths. These belong to, 
and are managed by, an individual. 

The temperature of the water at each bath from the dry 
pump, as it is called, is higher than that of the general bath. 
For example, at the Hot Bath it rises to 116°. 

The water deposits, in its progress to the baths, upon the 
pipes and other channels, a ferruginous precipitate. The 
springs also throw out a pyritical-looking sand. Of this I 
made an examination, and found it to be silex interspersed 
with portions of carbonates of lime and iron, as shewn by a 
considerable effervescence being produced on the addition of 
muriatic acid ; and the solution yielding precipitates of iron 
and of lime, by the action of ammonia, and oxalate of ammo- 
nia. W hen ignited upon a piece of platina foil, it here and 
there furnishes points of a pale blue flame, yielding at the 
same time a distinct sulphureous smell. 

W respect to the original cause of the temperature of 
the Bath waters, it is impossible to do more than form con- 
jectures. It was once thought that thermal springs, as well 
as volcanoes, owed their heat to certain fermentations or che- 
mical decompositions in the strata, such as that of pyrites 
which is known to generate heat ; or to the combustion of coal or 
other inflammable materials. But these causes are now con- 
sidered by geologists as quite inadequate to the effects pro- 
uced, and the source of volcanoes and likewise of hot 
springs is considered to be more deeply seated, below, indeed, 
all rocks or the solid crust of the globe. The generally 



adopted theory of these effects does not involve that of ordi- 
nary combustion, which demands the assistance of oxygen 
gas, nor of any heat which can he generated by the chemical 
action ol substances in the strata, or forming a part of them. 
The constant and equable degree of temperature, during a 
long succession of ages, of hot springs like those of Bath, 
can scarcely be supposed to depend solely upon the action of 
such causes which must in course of time cease to exist, from 
the consumption of materials, and would be likely to vary 
much in intensity at different periods : but we have no reason 
to think that the heat of the warm springs at Bath has varied 
even a few degrees for nearly 2000 years. Whatever may be 
the cause of that intense and powerful igneous action, the 
existence of which is demonstrated by volcanic eruptions, 
hot springs are probably the last expiring efforts of these 
operations ; or they are dependant upon that internal igneous 
activity, the intensity and direction of whose force is not 
sufficient to break out on the surface by what is commonly- 
termed a volcano. Hot springs are known to abound in 
countries where volcanoes are now in action ; and although 
no vestige of an active volcano can be traced in this island, 
we have abundant proofs in the trap rocks of the former ex- 
istence of the subterraneous action of igneous causes. 

A conferva, classed by Mr. Sowerby among the minute 
warm spring confervse, forms upon the sides and bottom of 
the public baths, and floats upon the surface of the water. 
This author, in the 36th vol. of his English Botany, plate 
2584, describes this conferva “ as spreading rather unequally 
in broad velvet-like patches of a dark green colour. The 
irregularity of its appearance arises from the filaments being 
collected together with little ascending tufts, apparently rooted 
in the muddy deposit of the water. Each tuft proves, on 
examination, to consist of simple uniform even filaments 
crowded together, quite pellucid, and equally destitute of 
joints and branches. Their diameter is not more than 8 or 
10,000 parts of an inch ; this being one of the most minute 
species that we have examined.” I trust that these prelimi- 
nary particulars of the baths will be found not uninteresting. 
I proceed to consider their medical use. 



Dr. Falconer commences his account of the external use 
of the Bath waters, by stating his opinion that they do not 
cause the relaxation produced by an ordinary warm bath. 
He remarks, “the Bath guides likewise, many of whom 
every morning remain several hours in the water, do not 
seem at all relaxed or weakened by such a practice ; but, on 
the contrary, are in general robust, vigorous, and long-lived, 
and most of them inclining to corpulency. 

“ Fainting, likewise, which a warm bath of common water 
is so apt to induce, happens very rarely in these baths, 
although the stay is generally longer than in a common warm 
bath, and the people who use it are often in a very weak 
state both of strength and spirits.” 

The opinion here expressed seems to me very reasonable, 
and more especially when we consider that the patient has 
the advantage of free space, that he may keep up muscular 
action during the immersion. 

The apartments are prevented from becoming oppressive, 
by the judicious use of ventilation. Dr. Falconer relates 
examples of the success of the baths in every kind of palsy, 
except when depending upon an apoplectic condition of the 
vessels of the brain. When speaking of palsy from lead, he 
quotes Dr. Charlton’s account, that, in two cases, “ in one of 
which the bath was not tried until one-and-twenty months 
after the seizure ; and another, wherein seven months were 
elapsed, after a second attack, before the patient came to 
the bath ; yet, notwithstanding, both of them perfectly re- 

Dr. Falconer has, in the course of his dissertation, ex- 
tolled the power of the Bath waters, as a remedy in many 
disorders calling only for the occasional use of the ordinary 
warm bath. Not entering so fully into his panegyric, I shall 
pass over this extended view of the subject, admitting, as a 
geneial aigument, that, when it suits the convenience of the 
individual, he would, under most circumstances, when re- 
lequiiing the use ol a warm bath, derive more comfort, 
and probably more advantage, from the free range of the 
warm bath at Bath, in preference to immersion in the or- 
dinary confined warm bath. I shall limit my present view 



to the consideration of gout, rheumatism, and diseases of the 
bursae mucosae, as medicable by the use of the baths. 

A gouty patient is not always precluded from making trial 
of the baths, even although the use of the water, internally, 
would be decidedly improper. Yet it holds, I think, as a 
general rule, that the water should not be employed in either 
mode when the system is in so susceptible a condition, that 
almost any exciting power serves to bring gouty irritation 
into action. From this statement must be excepted the in- 
stances in which the constitution is in a state of such general 
disorder, that some active and concentrated gouty action is 
desired ; — or, in other words, when a tit of gout is wanted. 

I have known many instances, in which the gouty disposition 
has been so strong, that one or two bathings have served to 
produce a paroxysm, even without the internal use of the 
water ; but I must add, that such a consequence is not pe- 
culiar to the Bath water. A similar effect in such constitu- . 


tions, or states of constitution, happens also from the common 
warm bath. 

Dr. Saunders, indeed, has called in question the specific 
influence of the Bath water externally applied. He remarks, 
when speaking of the waters and of the convenience of the 
baths, “ But its eulogists, not content with this, have af- 
firmed, that even when used externally, it exercises a sti- 
mulant power on the skin, which renders it preferable to 
common water and he proceeds with arguments, attempt- 
ing to shew that the only grounds of superiority are, agree- 
able temperature and the opportunity of keeping in free 
motion. I confess that I do not enter wholly into this 
scepticism. It appears to me very probable, that a water 
impregnated, as the water of Bath is found to be, should 
exercise some specific action on the sentient surface of the 
body, beyond that of common water raised to the same tem- 
perature. I shall beg, therefore, to assume this opinion as 
not incorrect, and proceed now with my medical discussion. 

It will happen, in some instances, that it is expedient to 
use the waters internally without bathing, and in others to 
bathe only. Of the latter fact I quote the following state- 
ment from an intelligent patient, as an illustration. 



A gentleman, aged 55, robust and plethoric, first attacked 
with gout at the age of 29 (the disposition not hereditary), 
suffered a severe paroxysm in the beginning of autumn, 
which was regularly and successfully treated. In September, 
being quite convalescent, he went to Bath, as it was his oc- 
casional plan to do. He favoured me with the following 
statement: “ A l'ter the usual preparation by aperient medi- 
cine, I commenced the drinking of the water of the Cross 
Bath, with one glass of the middling size before breakfast, 
and the same quantity before dinner. It agreed with me as 
usual on former occasions, always giving an excellent ap- 
petite, and an extraordinary flow of spirits. At the end, 
however, of eight days, I began to feel the approach of gout 
very sensibly in the feet; and, in short, was quite lame. 
My physician considered that the water was too stimulating, 
and advised its discontinuance. I should remark, that I was 
not sensible of any fever, and did not notice the usual dis- 
coloring of my tongue, nor the appearance of the pink sedi- 
ment in my urine during this attack. After, however, the 
swellings of the ankles had subsided, I was still distressed 
with flying pains about them and my feet. I was next re- 
commended to try the effect of the King’s Bath, and not to 
think of the internal use of the water. I bathed, in conse- 
quence, every other day, and finding the plan agree, and that 
the pains in my feet sensibly diminished, I continued it 
regularly five weeks ; and the result was very satisfactory 

Both as regards the internal and external use of the water, 
I am led to expect most advantage from it to the gouty pa- 
tient, in cases of the chronic form of the disease, in which 
there is great deficiency of nervous energy in the muscles, 
joined with languid circulation in the extremities, and still- 
ness with aching pains in the joints upon every motion. In 
the example I am supposing, the tendons are rigid and thick- 
ened, the ligaments are wanting in elasticity, and the bursae 
are distended. There is no external redness ; the feet are 
frequently cold ; and, in short, the limbs seem to want ani- 
mation, and to require a high degree of stimulus. 

If care be required by the gouty invalid in the use of the 



bath, still greater will be demanded in having recourse to the 
dry pumping, technically so called, from the circumstance of 
the rest of the body, except the part pumped upon, being 
kept dry. It is more or less stimulating in its action, accord- 
ing to the degree of heat of the water and the force with 
which it is projected. When the parts which have been 
weakened by gout are simply in a state of weakness and 
stiffness, the effect of pumping promises to be highly useful. 
It is most certain to be successful under the advantages of 
freedom from all tendency to inflammatory action, or feverish 
state of the system. Any marks of active gouty diathesis 
must be watched with every care ; for, if there be much sus- 
ceptibility to gouty action, -the stimulus of pumping will be 
too great an excitement. 

In chronic rheumatism the baths possess a high and well- 
merited reputation. It must not be considered as a remedy 
of universal application in this complaint ; so various are its 
forms ; so much is it modified by individual temperament and 
constitution. Doubtless it will be found most useful in those 
cases in which the inflammatory diathesis is absent, and in 
which there is but little tendency to febrile irritation. In this 
form of the complaint, for the most part, the patient, when 
sitting at rest, is free from pain, and suffers his distressing 
uneasiness only upon moving. The joints are stiff, and pro- 
duce a harsh grating noise on being moved. This grating 
may probably be attributed to a comparatively dry and un- 
healthy state of the cartilaginous surfaces, and defective se- 
cretion of the synovial membranes. The bursse mucosae are 
distended and occasionally tender ; the tendons rigid and 
thickened. From the disorganized condition of the ligaments, 
and probably from absorption of the smooth surfaces of car- 
tilages being attended with adhesive inflammation, or from 
earthy depositions in the joints, partial or complete anchylosis 
now and then takes place. It is obvious that any serious 
change of structure in this way is without remedy ; but it is 
equally clear that it may often be prevented by timely atten- 
tion ; and many morbid conditions of the soft parts will cer- 
tainly admit of materially useful treatment. 

Dr. Falconer, speaking of chronic rheumatism, states as 



follows: “In the space of five years (to wit, from the 
beginning of the year 1775, to the end ot the year 1779), 
three hundred and sixty-two patients were admitted for this 
disorder into the Bath Hospital, of whom one hundred and 
twenty-seven were cured, one hundred and forty- lour were 
much better, forty-two were better, forty-one were no better, 
and eight died, four of whom died of the small pox. 

“ The proportion of the number benefited, to the whole 
number received into the hospital for this complaint, is as 
313 to 362, or nearly as 1 to 1 -156. The proportion of those 
benefited, to those that received some benefit, is as 6'3877 
to 1.” 

The bursae mucosae are liable to a distinct form of com- 
plaint from either gout or rheumatism, acquiring, from a pro- 
cess of diseased secreting action, a state of enlargement, and 
either of remarkable softness or hardness, varying chiefly 
according to the size of the bursa which is affected. I am 
now adverting only to the chronic variety of this disease. 
There is seldom pain, but rather a sense of uneasiness and 
stiffness upon motion. The knee joint is most commonly 
affected, and produces most lameness ; but other joints, both 
in the upper and lower limbs, become affected. The appli- 
cation of pumping is in this complaint almost specifically 
useful ; and I am not aware that much advantage is to be 
expected from the bathing as regards the bursae only ; but, on 
other grounds, the general bath also will most commonly be 

I may here, without much irrelevancy, advert to the case 
of a gentleman who had long suffered much inconvenience 
from a bursal enlargement at the shoulder joint, so consider- 
able as to produce great deformity, and much restriction to 
the use of the joint. He was in the highest degree benefited 
by the use of the pump at Buxton, and by the general bath. 

Of the pumping, Dr. Falconer observes, “ From fifty* to 
two hundred strokes is the number generally directed to be 

* In many cases, I conceive, it will be better to commence with thirty strokes 


taken at one time, which may, however, he increased or di- 
minished according to the age, sex, strength, or other cir- 
cumstances of the patient. The pump, likewise, as its ap- 
plication is partial only, may be properly used at a greater 
degree of heat than a bath for the whole body. 

In regard to the season of the year, it seems agreed on all 
bands, that extremes of hot and cold weather are both ob- 
jectionable; and spring and autumn, therefore, maybe con- 
sidered as the most eligible periods. 

In regard to the time of using the bath, the following 
observations of Dr. Falconer appear to me perfectly appro- 
priate : “ If the patient use the public baths, it is necessary 
that he should go to them before nine in the morning, as 
they are emptied soon after that time ; but a much earlier 
hour is generally chosen. If the private baths are preferred, 
they may be prepared at any time of the day, and I am not 
certain that any particular hour possesses advantages peculiar 
to itself. I have known equal benefit gained in the morning, 
at noon, and in the evening. Those who prefer the latter 
hour, should be careful to dine rather early, and to pay es- 
pecial regard to moderation, with respect to the quantity and 
quality both of food and liquor.” 

Whether a bath of the highest temperature, as the Hot 
Bath ; or of the lowest, as the Cross Bath, shall be chosen, 
must depend wholly on the case and on the individual con- 
stitution ; as, also, the duration of the immersion. 

In conclusion, I ought to state my opinion, that, when a 
temperature lower than 94° does service, the patient should 
be considered in a state of preparation for Buxton. In hav- 
ing dwelt upon the use of the Bath water as a remedy in the 
three complaints just considered, I have not intended to lose 
sight of the superior pretensions of the Buxton bath for most 
conditions of these complaints. Bath, I apprehend, deserves 
the preference only in that state of the limbs in which the 
circulation is very languid, as shewn by coldness of the ex- 
tremities ; and in which remarkable stiffness constantly pre- 
vails, as described at p. 123. 

In most instances of these complaints of the limbs, whether 



Bath or Buxton be the appointed place of resort, the patient 
should not fail to add to the baths, the important remedy of 
friction and shampooing. I must pass over, without further 
comment, the other disorders in which the use of the baths is 
said to be efficacious. The authors above quoted have given 
a considerable list ; and for more general information on the 
subject, I beg to refer the reader to their volumes ; and es- 
pecially to the latest and excellent Treatise by Dr. Barlow. 



I HAVE not made an analysis of the Bristol water (which 
should rather be called Clifton), although I examined it at 
the pump-room with some re-agents. I shall offer only a 
brief account of it, and that partly extracted from the Trea- 
tise of Dr. Saunders. This celebrated spring is situated at 
the bottom and further extremity of St. Vincent’s rock*, a 
lofty cliff on the banks of the Avon, on the Gloucestershire 
side, about a mile from Bristol, and within four of the noble 
and extensive arm of the sea known by the name of the 
Bristol channel. 

The site of this spring appears to be one of those favored 
spots that are peculiarly calculated for the pleasure and com- 
fort of the invalid. High ridges of dry limestone cliffs shelter 
it from the bleak north and east winds, and from the boiste- 
rous west, which are so frequent and powerful on that side 
of the kingdom ; and it is only open to the south, a quarter 
in which exposure is the most agreeable. The banks of 
the Avon are justly the subject of admiration, for the whole 
adjacent country abounds with beautiful scenery and romantic 
prospects. The fine open downs on the neighbouring hills 
afford the health-inspiring breeze. The banks of the river 
are composed of high cliffs in which there are many winding 
walks, leading the traveller down to the water’s edge ; and 
in the distance is seen the wide estuary of the Severn in the 
Bristol channel. 

St. Vincent’s rock, from which the Hotwell springs, is com- 
posed of limestone. The rock is the scene of great busi- 
ness, on account of the large quarries that are hollowed out 

* It is worthy of being mentioned, that a cold spring of very pure cold water 
is found at the top of this rock. 



of its side, whence is procured a fine stone for the purposes 
of building, and also excellent lor being burnt into quick- 
lime, which is consumed to a large extent in the country, and 
exported in vast quantities to the West Indies, where it is 
employed in the manufacture of sugar. 

The Hotwell spring is a very fine clear tepid water, so 
copious as to discharge about forty gallons in a minute. The 
fresh water is inodorous, perfectly limpid and sparkling, and 
sends forth numerous air bubbles when poured into a glass. 
It is very agreeable to the palate, but without having any 
very decided taste. Its specific gravity is only 1 -00077, which 
is so near an approach to distilled water, as to indicate a 
small portion only of foreign contents. Taking the average 
of the most accurate observations, its temperature may be 
reckoned at 74°, and this does not very sensibly vary during 
winter or summer. Bristol water, besides being employed 
medicinally at the spring head, which is in fact but a small 
part of its consumption, is used largely at the table at the Hot- 
wells, and for all domestic purposes. From its excellent qua- 
lity of keeping untainted for a great length of time in hot 
climates, it forms a most valuable water for long voyages, 
and is accordingly exported in great quantities to distant 
parts. Dr. Carrick’s analysis gave the following results, 
from the evaporation of a wine gallon to dryness : 


“Of muriated magnesia 7-25 

— muriated soda 4-00 

— sulphated soda 11-25 

— selenite 11-75 

— carbonated lime 13-05 


Cubic Inches. 

Carbonic acid gas 30 

Common air 3” 

Stating the composition of the water according (o Dr. 
Murray s views, which, as I have repeatedly expressed, l con- 
sider to be the most rational, the following will appear : 





Of muriate of magnesia 7-25 

-• lime 3 80 

— selenite (sulphate of lime) 7- 5 

— sulphate of soda 16-15 

— carbonate of lime 13- 5 


Dr. Saunders justly observes, “that this water may be 
more safely tried in every state of health than most of the 
other mineral springs.” He states that “ the sensible effects 
generally allowed to be produced by it, when warm and 
fresh from the spring, are at first a gentle glow in the sto- 
mach, to which succeeds sometimes a slight degree of head- 
ache and giddiness, but which soon go off.” It is diuretic, 
and tends to keep the skin moist and perspirable. The 
charms of Clifton, as a place of residence, are too well 
known to require any further description. The air is clear, 
salubrious, and bracing, being remarkably dry ; and in 
sheltered spots the invalid may find great comfort as a 
winter residence, with the opportunity of drinking a very 
pure water, possessing certain, although not high, medicinal 



The town is situated 94£ miles, by the Uxbridge road, 
W. N. W. from London. The various handsome buildings 
and elegant villas, which are continually rising up to adorn 
the place and neighbourhood, have already exalted Chelten- 
ham and its charming environs to a high degree of beauty 
and importance. 

Dr. Jameson* remarks, “ The Valley of Evesham, now 
more properly called the Valley of Gloucester, is not ex- 
celled in beauty and sylvan scenery by any spot whatever, 
and derives vivacity from the Severn winding in its centre, 
and embellishment from numerous rural villages and plenti- 
ful orchards, which every where adorn its surface.” 

As a geological description, I may state, that the country 
immediately around Cheltenham consists of blue clay, which 
is denominated lias, and which frequently contains beds of 
argillaceous limestone. The Coteswold Hills, in its neigh- 

* A Treatise on the Cheltenham Waters, and Bilious Diseases. The same 
author quotes from Cary the following account of the relative situation of Chel- 
tenham to other places, considering it as the centre. 


9i miles S.W. 


44i — 



44| — 



35 — 



. . . .25 




















bourhood, are composed of calcareous rocks of the oolitic 


Whatever deficiency of springs may formerly have existed 
at Cheltenham, no such fault certainly now prevails ; but, on 
the contrary, such is the real or nominal variety, that it be- 
comes a task of no slight difficulty to give all the details 
necessary to a clear and full information respecting the dif- 
ferent wells. 

I have to speak of the original spa, Thompson’s or Mont- 
pelier Spa, and the Sherborne Spa. Each is furnished with 
pump rooms of noble size and elegance, with adjoining plea- 
sure grounds. Indeed, such are the excellent arrangements, 
that the invalid, gladdened also by enlivening bands of music 
which attend the morning promenade, is invited to fulfil his 
early duty of health by all the attractions of a gay and lively 

I have also to describe the two chalybeate springs. 


It is so named from being the oldest mineral well at Chel- 
tenham, accidentally discovered rather more than a century 
ago. It is situated in the centre of a beautiful avenue of 
elm trees, not five hundred yards from the middle of the 
town. The analysis reported by Dr. Saunders in his General 
Treatise, 1800, refers only to one water (the present No. 1.) ; 
but now the numbers or kinds at this pump room are no- 
minally four. I have been careful to ascertain the nature of 
the difference between these numbered waters. 

Their temperature varies according to the season of the 
year. Thus, the No. 3, in the latter end of the month of 
October 1819, was 43°, and at the end of May 1820, 53°. 
This account of the varying temperature applies to all the 
saline waters at Cheltenham. 



No. 1. 

This is described, on the proprietor’s card, as the strong 
aerated chalybeate saline, and as the original spa. Its taste 
is mildly and pleasantly saline, and not chalybeate. Its spe- 
cific gravity* is 1*0091. 


Litmus paper is just perceptibly reddened, but that stained 
with the wild hyacinth does not undergo any changef. 

Lime water renders the water slightly milky. 

Solution of soap produces a slight flaky precipitate. 

Pure ammonia does not immediately impair its transpa- 

Muriate of lime, no change. 

Subcarbonate of soda renders it slightly milky. 

Carbonate of ammonia produces a slight cloud, which is 
increased by the addition of phosphate of soda. 

Nitrate of lead, a considerable white precipitate. 

Pure barytes, a dense cloud. 

Muriate of barytes, an abundant precipitate. 

Nitrate of silver, a copious precipitate. 

Oxalate of ammonia, a dense cloud. 

Tincture of galls, in a very feeble degree, indicates the 
presence of iron. 

Prussiate of potash produces a very slight green tinge. 

From these effects we may presume that the water con- 
tains lime and magnesia, and sulphuric and muriatic acids, a 
very minute portion only of iron, and an inconsiderable im- 
pregnation with carbonic acid. 

* It is to be observed that the specific gravity of all the waters at Cheltenham 
was net taken at the spring, but shortly after. 

t For the sake of brevity, I may here note, that all the other waters at Chel- 
tenham acted on these papers without any marked difference of effect. 




One pint, upon an analysis conducted on the principles 
already detailed, and calculated on the data described at page 

102, afforded these results : 

In a pint. Grains. 

Muriate of soda 58-20 

lime 6-21 

magnesia . ... 2-54 

Sulphate of soda 14-56 


Carbonate of iron, a minute portion. 

No. 2. 

Described by the proprietor as the stroiig sulphureous 

Taste, saline and very slightly chalybeate ; the smell just 
perceptibly sulphuretted. 

The specific gravity, T0089. 

The effects of re-agents is precisely the same as described 
of No. 1, and as with that water, tincture of galls slightly in- 
dicates the presence of iron ; the prussiate of potash produces 
a distinct shade of green. The title of the water would na- 
turally lead us to expect a considerable impregnation with 
sulphuretted hydrogen ; but the fact is, that trials at several 
different times, made by adding a solution of acetate of lead, 
only gave a white precipitate ; shewing, therefore, the ab- 
sence of this gas, unless in the most inconsiderable propor- 


In a pint. Grains. 

Muriate of soda 22-60 

lime...: 3-68 

magnesia 5-16 

Sulphate of soda 52-32 


Carbonate of iron, a minute portion. 


1 35 

No. 3. 

Described as magnesian saline. 

Taste, saline and chalybeate. 

Specific gravity, 1 -0083. 

The action of tests produces the same effects as with the 
preceding waters, with the important exception that the tinc- 
ture of galls produced a purple hue mixed with brown, dis- 
tinctly indicating the presence of iron ; and prussiate of 
potash a strong shade of green. 


In a pint. Grains. 

Muriate of soda 17-60 

lime 3-08 

magnesia 3-30 

Sulphate of lime 43-20 


Carbonate of iron, probably upwards 
of a grain in a gallon. 

No. 4. 

Described as pure saline. 

Taste, strongly saline. 

Specific gravity, 1-0122. 

The tests act as before described in respect to the saline 
ingi edients, but scarcely afford any evidence of the presence 
of iron. 


Ina P int >. Grains. 

Muriate of soda 47-80 

•'me 4-29 

magnesia 7-30 

Sulphate of soda 59-20 


Carbonate of iron, a very minute portion. 



A review of the composition of these waters points out 
that the number called strong aerated chalybeate cannot be 
entitled to such an appellation. Its carbonic acid is insuffi- 
cient to redden litmus paper distinctly ; its iron almost fails 
to affect the prussiate of potash, and produces only a slight 
change of color with the tincture of galls. It may be pro- 
nounced to be a very good saline alterative water, and slightly 

No. 2, very feebly indeed, answers to the name of sul- 
phureous. I learn that this and the other sulphuretted 
waters at Cheltenham communicate, to characters written on 
paper with acetate of lead, a discoloration, after some hours, 
the paper being fixed to the trap-door ; but the fresh waters 
all produce, with acetate of lead, a white precipitate*. 

No. 3, which is commonly called magnesian saline, is in 
fact almost as strongly impregnated with iron as any w^ater 
in Cheltenham. Its saline impregnation is not strong ; but it 
deserves to be esteemed as a water considerably chalybeate 
and mildly saline. 

No. 4 appears from the analysis to be the most active of 
the saline waters. Making a course of experiments with 
two specimens of this w^ater sent to me within a short inter- 
val, I was surprised by the difference of result ; and, after a 
strict inquiry into the cause, I found that the proprietor was 
in the habit of adding a concentrated solution of the evapo- 
rated salts to this water ; and hence the obvious explanation 
of its varying composition. 


It is to be recollected that the original spa became in 
use about the year 1718. The following particulars of Mr. 
Thompson’s Wells I take the liberty of quoting from the 
analysis published by W. T. Brando, Esq. and Samuel Parkes, 

* I found that Harrogate water, which had been kept three or four months, 
diluted with fifteen parts of distilled water, gave, with acetate of lead, a brown 
hue, quite characteristic. 



Esq. ; and to which I shall afterwards refer as the analysis 
of 1817. 

“ For many years Subsequent to this period, the properties 
of these waters* were treated of by various medical writers ; 
and between the years 1770 and 1780 they acquired so much 
reputation, that the town became a place of great resort for 
invalids from all parts of the kingdom. 

“ But, as the celebrity of the waters increased, it was soon 
found that the wells could not supply the quantity which was 
required by the increased demand ; and in the year 1788 a 
new well was sunk by order of his late Majesty (George III), 
known by the name of the King's Well. At first the supply 
from this well was very abundant ; but it afterwards de- 
creased so much, that it was often drunk out by the company 
in half an hour. 

“ The waters of all the wells having thus continued to di- 
minish in quantity, serious apprehensions were entertained 
that the company, which had been in the habit of visiting 
Cheltenham, would meet with such frequent disappointments 
from the failure of the springs, that they would be induced 
to look out for some other watering place, and in a short 
time the town would be entirely deserted by the strangers 
who had formerly visited it, either for the purposes of health 
or pleasure. 

“ At this P^iod (1806) a gentleman of the name of 
Thompson, who had purchased a great part of the land in 
the vicinity of Cheltenham, determined to search for mineral 
water on his own estate, and to try to supply the deficiency 
so much complained of. The success he met with soon led 
him to think of turning his discovery to his own advantage, 
as well as that of the public ; and accordingly a new pump- 
100 m was erected, and no exertions were spared, until water 
was obtained sufficient for the supply of whatever company 
might resort to the town and neighbourhood.” 

JNo. 1. 

Described by the proprietor as the strong chalybeate saline 
water. Depth of well 45 feet. 

* Viz. of the Original Spa. 



Taste saline and slightly bitter. 

Specific gravity, T0085. 

The tests, both with this and the remaining waters at this 
spa, act in the manner described with the water of the Old 
Well, No. 1, in regard to the saline ingredients, varying only 
in degree according to the relative strength of the impreg- 

A faint indication of the presence of iron is produced by 
tincture of galls. 

Prussiate of potash occasions a very slight green tinge. 

By my Analysis, 

on the supposition that, according to Dr. Murray’s views 
on the subject, the saline ingredients exist in a water, 
rather according to their solubility, than as would appear 
from the state in which they are usually obtained by the 
ordinary processes of analysis. As an example, suppose 
muriate of lime and sulphate of soda to exist in a water, 
they do not decompose each other in the ordinary state of 
dilution ; but when the water becomes much concentrated 
by evaporation, a decomposition takes place, and sulphate 
of lime and muriate of soda are formed, the affinities in this 
case being reversed. 

In a pint, Grains. 

Muriate of soda 55*50 

lime 3*31 

magnesia 2*10 

Sulphate of soda 21*80 


Carbonate of iron (the state in which it exists in the 
water), a small portion. 

The following statement appears in the analysis of 1817. 

“ The specific gravity, 1*0092*. 

* After the loss of the gaseous contents. The same circumstance is mentioned 
in the examination of the other waters. 



“ One wine pint contains 74 grains of dry salts (after 
having been kept for six hours at a temperature ot 212°), 
consisting of 


Muriate of soda 41*3 

Sulphate of soda 22-7 

magnesia 6-0 

lime 2-5 

Carbonates of soda and iron P5 


“ In a pint of the water, about 2-5 cubic inches of carbonic 

No. 2. 

Described as the strong sulphuretted saline water. Depth 
of well, 48 feet. The pipe goes to the bottom. 

Taste, chiefly saline. 

Specific gravity, T0065. 

Tincture of galls produces an effect just distinguishable, 
indicating the presence of iron. 

Prussiate of potash, the very slightest shade of green. 

Acetate of lead, a white precipitate. 

By my Analysis. 

In a pint, Grains. 

Muriate of soda 25-70 

lime 3-31 

magnesia 1 -52 

Sulphate of soda 21-76 


Carbonate of iron, a very minute portion. 
According to the analysis of 1817. 

“ Specific gravity, 1-0085. 

“ In a P in b Grains. 

Muriate of soda 35 

Sulphate of soda 23-5 

magnesia 5-0 

lime 1-2 

Oxide of iron »3 




“ Gaseous contents. 

Cubic Inches. 

Sulphuretted hydrogen 2-5 

Carbonic acid 1-5 


No. 3. 

Described as the weak sulphuretted saline water. Same 
well as No. 2. The pipe goes within two feet of the bottom 
of the well. 

Taste, saline and mildly chalybeate. 

Specific gravity, T0067. 

The tincture of galls produces a very light-brown : the 
prussiate of potash just a shade of green. 

By my Analysis. 

In a pint. Grains. 

Muriate of soda 3T00 

lime 1-84 

magnesia 2-05 

Sulphate of soda 22-80 


Carbonate of iron, a very minute portion. 

According to the analysis of 1817. 
“ Specific gravity, T006. 

“ In a pint. 

Muriate of soda 

Sulphate of soda 



Oxide of iron 

“ Gaseous contents. 


„ 15-0 
.. 14-0 
. 5-0 

. 1-5 

.. -5 


Cubic Inches. 



Sulphuretted hydrogen 
Carbonic acid 



No. 4. 

Described as the pure saline water. Depth of well, 50 feet. 
Taste, pleasantly saline. 

Specific gravity, 1 -0077. 

Neither tincture of galls nor prussiate of potash produces 
any apparent change. 

By my Analysis. 

In a pint. 

Muriate of soda 



Sulphate of soda 

According, to the analysis of 1817. 

“ Specific gravity, T010. 

In a pint. 

Muriate of soda 

Sulphate of soda 















No. 5. 

Described as the sulphuretted and chalybeated magnesian 
spring, or bitter saline water. Depth of well, 60 feet. 

Taste, saline and rather bitter. 

Specific gravity, 1-0065. 

Acetate of lead produces a white precipitate. 

Tincture of galls affords a very faint indication of the pre- 
sence of iron. 

Prussiate of potash produces a very slight shade of green. 

By my Analysis. 

In a pint. Grains. 

Muriate of soda 23-50 

lime 4-92 

magnesia 3-61 

Sulphate of soda 38-80 


Carbonate of iron, a small portion. 



According to the analysis of 1817. 
“ Specific gravity, 1 -008. 

“ hi a pint. Grains. 

Sulphate of magnesia 36-5 

Muriate of magnesia 9*0 

soda 9-5 

Sulphate of lime 3-5 

Oxide of iron 3-5 

Loss 1-0 

Described as the saline chalybeate , drawn from the well 
near the laboratory, the depth of which is 126 feet. 

Taste, saline and slightly bitter. 

Specific gravity, 1 -0098. 

Tincture of galls produces a faint appearance of the pre- 
sence of iron. 

Prussiate of potash, a shade of green a little more marked 
than No. 5. 

By my Analysis. 

In a pint. Grains. 

Muriate of soda 76T5 

lime 3-07 

magnesia 3-02 

Sul phate of soda 11-62 


Carbonate of iron, a small portion. 

Gaseous contents. 

According to the analysis of 1817. 

“ Specific gravity, 1-004. 

“In a pint, Grains. 

Muriate of soda 22-0 

Sulphate of soda 10 0 

Oxide of iron T5 

Loss 0-5 


Carbonic acid, about 10 cubic inches. 



It is evident, from the comparative view of these analyses, 
that the waters in the course of the last few years have un- 
dergone considerable changes ; and these changes apply par- 
ticularly to Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5. No. 1 now scarcely contains any 
chalybeate impregnation — I am persuaded, not half a grain 
of iron in a gallon. The No. 2 no longer claims to be called a 
strong sulphuretted water, nor No. 3 even weakly impregnated 
with the gas. The analysis of 1817 represents No. 2 to be 
even more strongly impregnated than the powerful water of 
Harrogate (see p. 140 & 77) ; but now it produces only a white 
precipitate with the acetate of lead. No. 5, which is described 
to have contained the large proportion of 3-5 grains of oxide 
of iron in a pint, now is only affected in a slight degree 
either by the tincture of galls or the prussiate of potash. 

I am led, therefore, to give the following character of 
these waters. No. 1, a saline aperient alterative water, con- 
taining a very slight impregnation of iron, so as not to be 
objectionable on this account, except with a patient to whom 
this ingredient is forbidden, even in a small quantity. 

No. 2, of much the same power as No. 1, except that it 
has less of the muriates of soda and magnesia. It does not 
appear to be more strongly chalybeate than No. 1. 

No. 3, equally aperient with No. 2, has less muriate of lime, 
and more of muriate of magnesia, and is slightly chalybeate. 

No. 4 is a saline water, which can only contain iron in a 
very minute quantity, so delicate is the test of the galls for 
the presence of this metal ; but it does not follow that the 
water is wholly free from iron ; for, I shall have occasion to 
shew, when treating of the Malvern Water, that iron, in an 
extremely minute proportion, may exist in a water, although 
its presence is not indicated by the test of galls applied *to 
the fresh water. 

No. 5 is a water not shewing any sulphuretted impregna- 
tion. It is only slightly chalybeate. It possesses a fuller 
impi egnation, both of the aperient salt and of the most im- 
portant muriates, than the other waters. 

No. 6 contains only a small proportion of iron. It is less 
aperient than No. 4, but contains rather more muriate of 



These wells are situated at the top of the long walk from 
the Colonnade in the High Street, between Thompson’s Spa 
and the Old Well, and are connected with a spacious and 
elegant pump room. 

The pumps are in number, four. In regard to their saline 
ingredients, the action of tests is precisely of the same nature 
with that produced on the preceding waters, the effect vary- 
ing only in degree. 

The water is described as sulphureous and chalybeate. 

Taste, saline and slightly chalybeate. 

Specific gravity, 1 -001 1 . 

The action of tests demonstrates that this water is one of 
slight impregnation. This is obvious also from its low spe- 
cific gravity. 

Tincture of galls quickly produces a light purple color. 

Prussiate of potash, a slight shade of green. 

Acetate of lead produces a white precipitate. 


In a pint. Grains. 

Muriate of soda 3-31 

of lime 1-23 

magnesia a trace 

Sulphate of soda 4-37 


Carbonate of iron, probably a grain in the gallon. 

The water described as pure saline. 

Taste, saline. 

Specific gravity, 1-009. 

Neither tincture of galls nor prussiate of potash produces 
any indication of the presence of iron in this water. 




In a pint. 

Muriate of soda 



Sulphate of soda.... 







The water described as the magnesian water. 

Taste, almost negative. 

Specific gravity 1.0012. 

Tincture of galls produces a light brown colour ; prussiate 
of potash, a pale grass-green. All the other tests act but 


In a pint. Grains. 

Muriate of soda T67 

lime 1*85 

■ magnesia, a trace. 

Sulphate of soda 2*43 


Carbonate of iron, a small portion. 

No. 4*. 

It appears that this water is in reality the pure saline, as 
it gives still less indication of iron than the one so called, but 
is denominated No. 4, by w'ay of making a correspondence 
in numbers with the waters of the other wells. The close 
agreement which I found in the specific gravity, action of 
tests, and results of analysis, between this water and the 
pure saline, renders it unnecessary for me to enter into fur- 
ther particulars respecting it. 

In giving a summary view of the waters of this spa, I am 
led to describe the first as a mild chalybeate and light alte- 
rative saline. I consider that the oxide of iron can scarcely 
exceed half a grain in a gallon. 

* This is the only water numbered al this Spa. 




I must here notice, that the saline contents of the Chelten- 
ham waters materially influence the action of tincture of 
galls and prussiate of potash, as I discovered by a series of 
comparative experiments with a solution of sulphate of iron 
mixed with Cheltenham water after it had deposited its iron, 
and with distilled water. The tincture of galls produces 
shades of brown with the saline water, instead of purple ; 
prussiate of potash, shades of verdigris-green, instead of 
blue. If the impregnation with iron be weak, the change 
produced by the prussiate takes place very slowly. In these 
experiments, I obtained further information of the propor- 
tions of iron indicated by the particular action of the tests; 
and hence my deductions of the probable quantity of iron 
in these, and the waters of Leamington which are to follow. 

The second water contains a good share of the muriate of 
lime; but, from its small proportion of sulphate of soda, 
is but very slightly aperient. It must be considered there- 
fore chiefly as a saline alterative water. 

The third is improperly called magnesian water, which 
would imply a strong impregnation with magnesia. It is 
altogether a very weak water. 

In taking a general review of the composition of all these 
waters, we find that there are three kinds, all saline, aperi- 
ent, and alterative ; some containing also a very feeble sul- 
phuretted impregnation ; others a notable portion of oxide of 
iron, held in solution by cai'bonic acid, immediately detected 
by the tests of galls and prussiate of potash ; and some so 
weakly impregnated as not to give the indication of its ex- 
istence from the immediate application of the tests to the 
fresh water. 

When 1 observe that by the term aperient I designate the 
sulphate of soda as the ingredient; and by the term altera- 
tive, the muriates of lime and magnesia ; the reader can 
readily draw a comparison between the relative strength of 
the different waters. 

It is the practice to increase the purgative power of 
Thompson’s No. 4, by the addition of a solution of the dried 
salts obtained by evaporation of the water. I made a series 
of experiments with this solution, and found it to consist of 



about three parts of sulphate of soda, one part of sulphate of 
magnesia, and a portion of muriate of soda. It was not 
affected by oxalate of ammonia; it did not, therefore, contain 
lime. If it should be thought desirable to retain the fullest 
dose of the muriates, and which, being very deliquescent 
salts, become removed from the evaporated dry mass, and if 
the loss of the iron be not regarded, it would be an improve- 
ment, for the purpose of increasing the strength of the water, 
to concentrate it more or less by evaporation. If the water 
thus strengthened do not prove sufficiently aperient, its action 
should be assisted by some suitable pills taken at bed time. 
No. 2 of the Old Well may be called saline chalybeate, 
instead of “ strong sulphureous saline for I have not disco- 
vered it to possess any sulphuretted impregnation which 
need be regarded ; but, as I am persuaded the waters vary in 
regard to the proportion of sulphuretted hydrogen gas, I would 
say, that, if any particular water should, by its taste and smell, 
discover itself to be so impregnated, and on that account be 
objectionable, Thompson’s No. 4 will deserve the preference. 
The strongest of the Sherborne waters is more of a saline 
alterative than saline aperient. 

I have a few remarks to offer on the salts prepared at Mr. 
Thompson’s laboratory, and upon what is called, in a note in 
the Analysis of 1817, “a murio-sulphate of magnesia and 
iron in brown crystals, highly tonic.” 

The saline preparations are termed — 

1. Crystallized alkaline sulphates; or crystals of real 
Cheltenham salts. 

2. Ditto effloresced and ground to an impalpable powder 
for hot climates. 

3. Magnesian sulphate, in a state of efflorescence. 

The crystalline salt 1 appears to consist almost wholly of 
sulphate of soda ; but it also contains a small portion of mag- 
nesia, which, from the deliquescence of the salt, we may con- 
sider to be combined with muriatic acid. It probably also 
contains a little muriate of soda. 

The efflorescent salt 11 is, as already described, the crys- 
tallized salt 1 ground to powder. 

The magnesian sulphate 3 is composed of sulphate of 

L 2 



soda and sulphate of magnesia ; but of the former salt in 
much the larger proportion. 

The murio-sulphate of magnesia and iron consists chiefly 
of sulphate of magnesia, a small portion of muriate of mag- 
nesia, and a little oxide of iron attached to it mechanically, 
having fallen down from its solvent, the carbonic acid, which 
is dissipated in the process of evaporation. This salt, upon 
being dissolved in water, parts with its adhering oxide of 
iron, which is wholly insoluble in water. The fluid is not in 
the least degree affected by tincture of galls, however much 
it may be concentrated*. 

From the foregoing premises, the conclusion follows, that 
a patient does not pursue a course of the Cheltenham waters 
by merely taking the dissolved salts just described ; for he 
loses those valuable ingredients, the muriates of lime and mag- 
nesia, and loses the chalybeate principle, which, although not 
strong in these waters, must be allowed a considerable share 
of useful action. The true character, therefore, of the Chel- 
tenham salts is now made sufficiently apparent to render 
further comment unnecessary^. 

* Since making my examination of these salts, my attention has been directed 
to Mr. Phillips’s paper on the same subject, in Thompson’s Annals of Philoso- 
phy, vol. ii. This Chemist arrived at the same general results. I refer the 
reader to his more elaborate account. 

f Other preparations of Cheltenham salts are now sold, one called Bevan’s 
effervescent, which appears to be a pleasant cooling aperient ; and the other the 
Cheltenham chalybeate. I am not acquainted with the exact preparation of 
these medicines. By my recommendation, Mr. Garden has prepared an admix- 
ture of all the saline ingredients, described in my analysis, which I suppose 
to be contained in the strongest of the waters ; the calculation of the composition 
being made accordingto Dr. Murray’s views, forming therefore a very good altera- 
tive aperient ; and the same combination with the addition of such a portion of the 
sulphate of iron as may, in strength, be equivalent to one grain of carbonate of 
iron in a gallon of the water. These two kinds of salts, taken in a large quantity 
of water, form the best imitation of the Cheltenham waters with which I am 


Before I enter upon the medicinal employment ot the 
Cheltenham waters, I find it necessary to give a slight fur- 
ther discussion of their chemical properties. The method of 
analysis did not allow of our obtaining the carbonates ; but 
we found, by an experiment of slowly boiling one of the 
waters which contained the largest quantity of muriate of 
lime, that a very trivial portion only of carbonate of lime 
fell down. In the computation of the ingredients according 
to Murray’s view, it is necessary to consider that the sulphu- 
ric acid is altogether combined with the soda, as forming the 
most soluble salt, and consequently that all the magnesia is 
combined with muriatic acid. No sulphate of magnesia, 
therefore, in this view of the subject, can be obtained, except 
in the direct method of analysis, and as the result of decom- 
position of the salts during the process of evaporation. 

It is a notion very commonly entertained, and sometimes 
even by medical men, that the Cheltenham waters do not 
possess any especial virtue, and that the invalid may derive 
an equal share of benefit from taking a solution of Epsom 
and Glauber’s salts at home, observing all the rules of diet 
and regimen, as by drinking the waters at their native source. 
I do not consider that any laboured refutation of such opi- 
nion can be required. The composition of these waters is 
to be esteemed important, not merely as containing ingre- 
dients of an aperient nature, but as being truly alterative ; 
or, in other words, possessing powers which operate medi- 
cinally in a gradual manner, not affecting the patient very 
sensibly at the time, but tending from day to day to alter and 
improve the functions of the digestive organs ; and conse- 
quently to change the condition of the whole system. If 
we take, for example, a water, as No. 1 of either of these 
wells, containing the oxide of iron held in solution by car- 
bonic acid in conjunction with the several saline ingredients, 
w r e have a composition not easily imitable bv art. The influ- 



ence of a small portion of oxide of iron in a water must not 
be estimated exactly by its quantity, as is so well shewn by 
the power of the Bath water when used fresh from the pump. 

The medical character of the waters may be comprised 
within a brief sketch, after the dissertation already given on 
their composition. 

I consider the point fairly established, that the nature of 
the Cheltenham waters as a medicine is not to be considered 
as simply a saline aperient in a diluent form. Happily for 
society, the real merits of any remedy do not depend upon 
the caprice of individual opinion, upon ignorance, or upon 
the fluctuations of fashion and prejudice. The Cheltenham 
waters have established for themselves a high character 
because they have deserved it. This important effect belongs 
to them — that an invalid can pursue a continued daily 
course, such as produces a regular and considerable action 
of the bowels, without suffering that debility of the constitu- 
tion and impaired appetite which are apt to occur from a 
similar course of saline aperients at home. Witness the 
keen relish with which the breakfast meal is eaten, after 
the early visit to the wells : and the general improvement 
of health and spirits, consequent to the judicious use of the 
waters, is as remarkable as it is important. 

It is a very common error of invalids to think that the 
Cheltenham waters are a very simple remedy ; from which 
cause they do not allow themselves to consider that any pre- 
vious medical advice is necessary. I affirm, without fear of 
contradiction, that much harm continually arises from this 
ill-judged confidence ; and I have had the opportunities of 
observing how much some patients have injured themselves 
by not taking the waters upon a proper plan, and by con- 
tinuing them for an improper period. As a general rule, a 
mercurial purgative should precede the use of the water. It 
is an important fact, that if much confinement of the bowels 
have prevailed, and more especially if there be decided 
biliary obstruction, the water, instead of becoming the read} 7 
remedy which is expected, may prove a source of evil in the 
way I shall state. It may act upon the exhalant vessels of 
the alimentary canal, so as to produce only fluid discharges, 



and actually leave behind the move solid and obstructing 
matter. The same observation applies in a great degree to 
the use of the water in progress. It is, I know, the medical 
practice at Cheltenham, and very judiciously, to conjoin the 
use of a purgative alterative pill with the water. This will 
of course be more or less active in its composition, according 
to the constitution of the patient and the nature of the case. 
The patient, being fitly prepared, has next to be instructed 
as to his choice in the No. of the water. It will generally 
happen that at first he should commence with the most purely 
saline water, the dose of which will obviously be regulated 
by the effect which is desired to be produced. It happens, 
with some persons of peculiar constitution, that the water 
does not pass off by the bowels, but chiefly remains in the 
canal, causing a distressing degree of distension. An ad- 
vantage is obtained by assisting the action of the bow- 
els by means of pressing them, and as it were shampooing 
them rather forcibly during the immediate operation of the 
water. But if, even with every care, the water do not appear 
to suit the individual patient, in its character of an apei'ient, 
I should not wish its use to be abandoned. It might with 
propriety be taken in small quantities, with a view to its im- 
proving the digestive functions and increasing the action of 
the kidneys ; and the proper excitement to the bowels might 
be afforded by means of pills, of a composition the most 
adapted to the particular case. 

The water being used upon this principle, an active or 
an immediate good effect is not to be expected. The patient 
must have patience. 1 approve very much of the custom of 
giving a little increase of temperature to the water. When 
the proper moment arrives for changing the pure saline for 
one of the chalybeate waters, the same general principles are 
to be kept in view, in regard to the management of the 
bowels. It is obvious, that, as sulphuretted waters, the 
Cheltenham springs are not entitled to much consideration. 
Some persons are so exquisitely sensible to the influence of 
chalybeate medicines, that they cannot, with any precautions, 
make use of a water containing even a minute portion of 
iron. Such individuals therefore must confine themselves to 



the springs, which, from their very slight and almost ques- 
tionable impregnation with iron, may, in the comparison, be 
called pure saline ; but the majority of patients will derive 
material advantage from having the tonic influence of the 
iron added to the other properties of the water. 

I shall now give a concise account of the principal disor- 
ders in which the Cheltenham waters are particularly appli- 

The gouty patient may drink the pure saline waters of 
Cheltenham with almost certain prospect of final benefit. 
He must be prepared for the course ; and I wish, once for all, 
to extend this injunction of proper preparation to every 
patient in every case. It very commonly happens that, in 
a short time after commencing the water, a paroxysm of 
gout takes place. Whence does this arise ?— Not, in my 
opinion, from the aperient qualities of the water — nor from 
its gaseous impregnation, which is not active ; but from the 
stimulating qualities of the muriates ; and from the influence 
of the chalybeate impregnation, which, although so slight in 
these springs (the pure salines) as not to be easily detected, 
yet must be considered as very capable of stimulating the 
circulation in certain sensitive constitutions. Under these 
circumstances, I would wish a discontinuance of the water 
during the active symptoms of gout, which might be treated 
on the principles recommended in my Treatise, if receiving 
the approbation of the attendant physician ; and, when the 
convalescence begins, the water is to be resumed. I believe 
I am warranted in saying, that in all probability a fit of gout 
produced by the Cheltenham water will not soon be followed 
by another attack ; provided also that the case has been in 
every respect well managed, and that the patient will ob- 
serve due care in his mode of living. 

The disordered conditions of the digestive organs, which 
comprehend the several kinds of dyspepsia, hepatic obstruc- 
tion, and torpor of the bowels, rank foremost in the class of 
Cheltenham cases. The East Indian visits these springs 
almost as a matter of course, upon his arrival in this country. 

The value of the Cheltenham waters, as a remedy in dvs- 
pepsia, will depend entirely on the nature of the case. If 



real and primary debility of stomach be the cause, the waters 
are not forbidden, bnt must be taken with much circumspec- 
tion, and rather as an alterative than an active aperient. A 
spring affording the larger share of the chalybeate principle 
will soon deserve the preference, if not in the first instance. 
If dyspepsia arise, as it often does, from a course of reple- 
tion — from frequently repeated over-excitement — the water 
may be taken freely without apprehension ; and, for the most 
part, the pure saline will be the kind of water most appro- 

The jaundiced patient will require more preparation, and 
more particular attention in the combined use of medicines, 
than any other description of invalid. 

It would be incompatible with my present purpose to 
enter into any extended consideration of the nature and 
treatment of hepatic complaint. It is an encouraging con- 
sideration for those who labour under disordered functions of 
the liver, together with debility of the constitution, that 
the action of the Cheltenham water on the bowels, from day 
to day, is not attended with the weakening effect which is 
liable to happen from ordinary medicine ; and, as the indi- 
vidual who has resided in a tropical climate most usually has 
undermined the real powers of his constitution, this is a point 
of great moment. 

Every practitioner must have met with cases of diseased 
liver, accompanied with such an impaired state of constitu- 
tion, that any active employment of mercury would be an 
unwise, if not a hazardous, treatment. It is not safe to raise 
up mercurial fever in the system in these instances ; and I 
do not believe that a better expedient can be adopted, than 
a course of Cheltenham saline water in conjunction with a 
mild mercurial alterative. 

The term bilious is certainly of late years so general a 
phrase, that it becomes an expression adopted in every dis- 
ordered state of stomach, and is applied to every state of the 
liver, whether it be torpid in its action and fail to furnish 
bile, or be in a state of irritation, secreting in excess. If 
the erroneous view first described be taken, and that the 
stomach alone is the part in fault, it probably happens that 



calomel is resorted to imprudently and without occasion. 
A patient is a very bad judge upon these points of dis- 

It happens, as an occasional inconvenience, from the Chel- 
tenham waters, that irritation is excited in the mucous mem- 
brane of the lower intestines, and painful hemorrhoids are 
produced. I have known even a degree of dysentery to 
take place. I think it will be found, for the most part, in 
these cases, that a predisposition to such forms of complaint 
has existed, and that the action of the water merely proves 
the exciting cause. Should such complaints arise, it is obvi- 
ous that the use of the water should be suspended, and that 
the inconveniences in question should receive exclusive atten- 
tion. In gravel, a course of the water, in union with altera- 
tive medicine, is much to be recommended. 

Those who are subject to erysipelas, erythema, urticaria, 
and the different forms of acne, will most probably derive 
advantage from a course of the pure saline Cheltenham 
water, joining with it some alterative medicine. The cuta- 
neous diseases, mentioned at p. 82, claim rather the use of 
Harrogate water, as already explained. 

The addition of the warm bath, upon a regular plan, will 
be material in assisting the alterative action of the water. 
I have met with cases of spasmodic irritation affecting the 
bowels, on slight occasions of disagreement of food, or of 
exposure to damp and cold, which have been most satisfac- 
torily relieved by the regular use of the warm bath. It 
should be used so as not to prove a considerable relaxant ; 
and it is indeed on most occasions desirable that it should 
produce the opposite effect, have a refreshing influence, 
and be made auxiliary to the general tone of the system. 

With such a view, the patient should bathe an hour or two 
before dinner, and not take any unnecessary exercise after it. 
The temperature of the confined warm bath should not be 
less than 93°, nor more than 97°; but the uniform tempera- 
ture should be attentively kept up. Not less than ten 
minutes, and not more than twenty, may be expressed as a 
good general rule for the duration of the immersion ; and 
from once to three times in the week, as to frequency. 



At Mr. Thompson’s baths, there is one* so conveniently 
spacious that the patient can keep in free motion the whole 
time, and the temperature of the water can be regulated 
from 80° to 100°, with a little care on the part of attendants. 
So considerable a body of water cannot very well be main- 
tained at an uniform temperature ; but much may be done 
in this respect ; and it appears to me that this large bath may, 
in many cases, be infinitely serviceable. 

If, with the best management, the general immersion in 
the warm bath prove too relaxing to the constitution, the 
shower bath, used upon a principle of graduation as to the 
temperature and quantity of the water, will deserve a trial. 
It is an important remedy, and, when judiciously managed, 
scarcely ever fails to agree perfectly and prove very useful. 
This management may be stated to consist in beginning with 
a small quantity of water, from two to three gallons, and gra- 
dually increasing it to eight gallons ; the temperature at first 
from 86° to 82 p , it being gradually reduced to 70°, or to that 
point, whatever it may be, which is attended with the most 
satisfactory re-action. The patient should stand ankle-deep 
in water while receiving the shower. It is often useful to 
add salt to the water. The usual frequency of using the 
bath is, at first, each other day, and then for two days in suc- 
cession, omitting the third. The shower bath may be used 
on first rising by those who are accustomed to it ; but about 
an hour after breakfast, or an hour before dinner, as a com- 
mencement, or by the delicate invalid. 

The diet of the invalid at a watering place should be studi- 
ously moderate and correct. This is a point of peculiar mo- 
ment when the patient is under a course of these waters. The 
quantity of fluid at all the meals should be much restricted; 
for otherwise the muscular power of the stomach and intesti- 
nal canal may become weakened from distension. Half-a- 
pint of aqueous fluid with the dinner meal is amply sufficient; 
and, in many cases, it is better to take less. Soda water, or 
plain water, made palatable with toast, or any other simple 

* I learn that its admeasurement is 12 feet by 10. I believe that every kind 
of bath is obtained at Cheltenham in preat perfection. 



addition, should be the exclusive beverage, with the exception 
of such moderate quantities of good wine as may be allowed. 

I do not consider it necessary to enter in this place upon 
the rules of diet, as to the most wholesome articles. The 
invalid requires separate and distinct instructions; and those 
who visit Cheltenham or any other watering place, in tolera- 
ble health and with good appetites, are to be admonished 
much more upon the quantity than the exact kind of their 
food. What reasonable expectation of benefit can be enter- 
tained from a course of alterative aperient waters, if a sys- 
tem of repletion with various kinds of stimulating food be 
every day pursued ? The liberal regime of a boarding- 
house is, in this respect, unfavorable to the necessary disci- 
pline of the patient ; and it is incumbent on him to exercise 
a virtuous forbearance. Great numbers, I hope not the 
majority, violate all propriety, and freely indulge their in- 
clination in partaking of the temptations of the table d’hote , 
at breakfast, luncheon, dinner, tea, and supper ! I know that 
it is not a very popular course to inveigh against the gra- 
tification of the palate, and condemn indulgence. It is, how- 
ever, only in particular instances of disease that I should wish 
to enjoin any severe forbearance in diet ; but the virtue of 
moderation must be proper for all persons. While some 
medical advisers are so rigid in their directions, that they are 
sure to be disobeyed ; others give quite an easy latitude to 
their patients, telling them they cannot err, if they carefully 
consult their own experience, and take such food as they find 
by experience to agree. 

A very able surgeon, and elegant writer, has expressed 
opinions* on the subject of diet which are captivating be- 
cause they fall in so much with our pleasure and freedom of 
action. I will quote the whole passage, which I am sure 
will be read with interest. 

“ But do we not affect a sagacity in dietetic, greater than 
plain sense and sober experience give us warrant for ? The 
oracular decrees of some eminent persons in the profession 
are expounded with a minuteness, enforced with a precision, 

* See Travers on Constitutional Irritation, p. 29. 



and received with a complacency, really amusing. I must 
take the liberty of entering my humble protest against sucb 
sickly fancies ; they are, indeed, “ aegri somnia,” and will no 
more satisfy the minds of reasonable and unprejudiced persons, 
than the prescribed ration, their appetites. Every man’s sto- 
mach informs him, with as much accuracy as his moral sense 
distinguishes right and wrong, when it is indisposed for food, 
when it has received enough, and when it is overloaded ; and 
his personal experience- not only instructs him earlier and 
better than any one can inform him, what articles of diet to 
select and what to avoid, but is the only process by which he 
can obtain the information correctly. For there is the utmost 
diversity in the digestive powers, as well as in the palates, of 
different individuals, both as to the quality and quantity of food ; 
and a variation almost as considerable, in the same stomach 
and palate, as circumstances influence at different periods. A 
parliamentary enactment would be quite as reasonable as a 
tabular regulation, for the quality and quantity of aliment 
which people are to consume ; and truly it were a sad omen 
for the nation, if the enervating refinement of the age had re- 
duced our organs to this extremity of imbecility ; for that, if 

I such a conceit were generally acted upon, it would lead to this 
result, and make abstinence a merit of necessity, there can be 
little doubt. It is hardly possible to conceive a more hideous 
catalogue of evils than that which follows in the train of ani- 
mal impoverishment ; of the physical consequences we may 
form some idea, but it would be difficult to estimate the extent 
of its moral influence on mankind. Neither the physical nor 
the mental appetites and powers of the individual approach to 
a state of uniformity, but are, in the highest degree, variable. 
Man is the creature of circumstance ; if he were not, he 
would be shorn of all his nobler faculties. Emulation, 5 en- 
thusiasm, and all the elevating impulses of his nature would 
be dormant, and the world would be sunk in a state of sense- 
less apathy. 

But it is the abuse of it, not the argument in favour of a 
rational abstemiousness, to which I take exception. It surely 
does not follow that the whole science of hygeia turns upon 
breakfast and dinner, because a sick man requires to be dieted. 



Every one knows that an imperfect assimilation and separa- 
tion of the food, whether from the materials of its composition 
or the state of the chylopoietic organs, is incompatible with 
health ; that a gorged state of the secreting or excreting ves- 
sels, a defective or redundant, or a palpably vitiated secretion 
is inconsistent with the functions and feelings of health. No 
elaboration of the soundest organs can separate a wholesome 
product from an unwholesome mass. If the chyle be bad, the 
blood will be bad ; and if the blood be bad, the solids of the 
body, which are maintained by it, will partake of the deprava- 
tion ; just as the rank and unwholesome grass impoverishes 
or taints the milk, and the milk the butter. The various 
forms of scrofula in children shew this best ; none more strik- 
ingly than the mesenteric disease, both in its origin and its 
effects. No one can doubt the influence of the fluid on the 
solid, and the reaction of the latter on the former, who has 
had an opportunity of observing the change in the quality of 
the secretions, and in the tone of the capillary system, brought 
about by well-adapted food and medicine. It would too much 
prolong this digression, to discuss several interesting questions 
connected with so important a subject. Suffice it, for my pur- 
pose, to say, mankind are sufficiently aware of the fact, that 
innutritious and superabundant food are productive of as se- 
rious evils as insufficient food ; and if we speak the truth, we 
shall say, that they who act in disregard of this principle, do 
so from a less venial pretext than ignorance. Nor is any ex- 
traordinary penetration required to foresee that, in proportion 
as the functions concerned in nutrition are performed com- 
pletely and naturally, and are least subject to interruption, the 
strength of the body, the energy of the mind, and the powers 
in reserve (vires medicatrices) that are to support and restore 
the system under the assaults of injury and the breaches of 
time, are greatest and most effective. In some individuals, 
as in some climates, greater care and personal restraint are 
required than in others. The restrictions necessary to the 
recovery of health, are seldom favorable to its preservation. 
“ They that are whole need not a physician.” The system 
of “ la medicine expectante” is a better friend to the college 
than the community. 



“If longevity be regarded as a criterion of health, which, in 
an unqualified sense, it certainly is not, it would be easy to 
shew, by some splendid living examples, that a rigid abste- 
miousness has not been the prominent virtue of the aged. 
Of Cornaro it may be worth while to remark, since it is not 
generally known, that he w'as a wine-bibber : an early edition 
of his work represents this hero with a plump capon before 
him on the table, and a bottle of wine at his elbow. [Luigi 
Cornaro, overo Discorsi della Rita Sobria. Paris. 1646.] If, 
however, the exemplars of longevity have not been remark- 
able for temperance, neither have they been notorious sen- 
sualists. But how many of the aged, who have lived, as the 
phrase is, all the days of their lives, have been remarkable 
for an independence of habit, opposed to a slavish adherence 
to the rules and formularies, and a total indifference about 

! the ‘ juvantia et lsedentia’ of our modern gastronomists !” 

There is some truth expressed in this spirited criticism on 
the rules of the dieter, but, I must think, mixed with a great 

S deal of questionable doctrine. I would directly oppose the 
following sentiment: — “ The restrictions necessary to 
the recovery of health are seldom favorable to its pre- 
servation.” A good appetite, or that which, from the 
pleasure to the palate, “ vient en mangeant,” and a 
well-spread table, pretty constantly lead to injurious ex- 
cess, gradually tending to weaken the powers of the sto- 
mach, and certainly to produce fulness of habit, and de- 
generacy of the general health. I do not think that the 
example of Cornaro has been fairly quoted. His excesses 
in early life brought about that loss of health which awakened 
his fears, and induced him to practise those rules of exceed- 
ing moderation and care which were productive of the hap- 
piest results, crowning his virtue with the reward, not merely 
of longevity, which, without health, would be no blessing, 
but of that greatest of possessions, “ a sound mind in a sound 

It will often be a valuable part of the plan of drinking the 
Cheltenham waters, to suspend the course after about three 
weeks, and then go to Malvern for a week or ten days ; and, 
upon its health-inspiring hills, gain increase of tone in the 
constitution ; when, with greater advantage, another fortnight 

1 GO 


may be devoted to the waters ; resumed, however, in some 
instances at least, rather as alteratives than active aperients. 

In that very necessary part of regimen, regular daily ex- 
ercise, the patient should be careful to avoid exposure, and, 
indeed, all active exertion, during the mid-day sun. In 
summer, the heat at Cheltenham is very considerable ; and 
the invalid must be careful, by all good management, to pre- 
serve the powers of his constitution, and refrain from causes 
of great fatigue, in order to do full justice to a course of the 

I have to conclude with a short account of the pure chaly- 
beate waters of Cheltenham. 


The water is transparent, not sparkling, and, to the taste, 
moderately chalybeate. 

Its specific gravity is 1-001 1. 


Neither litmus nor hyacinth paper undergoes any change of 

Tincture of galls almost immediately produces a slight 

Prussiate of potash, after a few minutes, produces a faint 
blue tint. 

With the boiled water, no change of color is occasioned by 
these re-agents. 

Nitrate of silver, a considerable precipitate. 

Carbonate of ammonia and phosphate of soda, applied in 
succession, produce the compound precipitate of lime and the 
triple phosphate of magnesia, as formerly described. 

Pure ammonia renders the water slightly milky. 

Muriate of barytes produces a dense cloud. 

Oxalate of ammonia, a similar effect. 

From the low specific gravity of this water, we may con- 


elude that it is not strongly impregnated ; and, from the 
action of the tests, we are entitled to infer that it contains 
lime and magnesia, with sulphuric and muriatic acids, and 
oxide of iron held in solution by carbonic acid. 


The specific gravity of this water is 1-001. 


Tincture of galls does not produce any immediate change 
of color, and, after standing, the tint of purple is only faint. 

Prussiate of potash produces a very slight effect, and that 

All the other re-agents act in the same manner as with 
Fowler’s chalybeate, but in a less degree. 

Hence we may certainly conclude, that this water is pre- 
cisely of the same character as Fowler’s, but in all respects 
v weaker. 

In regard to the medical report of these chalybeate waters, 

I I need only refer the reader to my Observations on the Tun- 
bridge Wells Water. The Cambray spring evidently de- 
serves the preference. An invalid having concluded a course 
of the saline aperient waters, if making a longer stay at 
Cheltenham, may, with advantage, have recourse to this mild, 
pure chalybeate, and which contains also some useful saline 
ingredients. It is due, however, to Tunbridge Wells, to say, 
that, as a pure carbonated chalybeate, its springs rank the 
first ; and deservedly enjoy a higher reputation than any 
: other water of the same kind in this country. 





Leamington, or, as sometimes called, Leamington 
Priors, is situated two miles east of Warwick ; and distant 
from London 90 miles. Its name is derived from the Leam, 
a small stream, which passes near it ; the term Priors refers 
to the monastery of Kenilworth, to which it was formerly 
attached. It may be further described as situated at the 
eastern side of that extensive flat, called the Plain of War- 
wick, and which is covered with the formation called, in this 
country, the red marl. This bed is the same as that in which 
the salt mines in Cheshire are placed, and it also frequently 
contains gypsum. Accordingly, both these minerals are 
found at Leamington : the salt, however, is not met with in 
the state of rock, but only as a salt spring. To the east lies 
the lias, and the oolite range. 

A stronger example of the prosperous influence upon a 
place, derived from its fortunate possession of mineral 
springs, can scarcely be adduced, than Leamington. For- 
merly an obscure hamlet, it now assumes every day more 
and more the pride and magnificence of a modern town, 
and is now become very highly distinguished as a watering 
place. The surrounding country is agreeable, and admirably 
convenient for the invalid in the variety and facility of its walks 
and rides. Interesting objects of curiosity in the neighbour- 
hood are not wanting. That ancient and most noble struc- 
ture, Warwick Castle ; the romantic attraction of Guy’s Cliff ; 
the venerable ruins of Kenilworth Castle ; Stratford-upon- 
Avon at an accessible distance, the well-known birth-place of 
our divine Shakespeare ; may be mentioned as assurances to 
the visitor, that, in pursuing his daily exercise, he will find 
an ample share of gratification. 




The saline springs of Leamington were noticed by many 
of our early writers, as by Camden, about 1586; Speed, in 
1596; and by others. Dugdale, in his edition of the An- 
tiquities of Warwickshire, 1656, speaks of a “ spring of salt 

water nigh the west end of the church.” 

The spring which supplied the old bath was discovered 
in the year 1786. The new baths were erected in 1791; 
and the spring itself was discovered in 1790. 

As the soil, which belongs to different proprietors, fur- 

I nishes mineral springs in various situations, it follows, as a 
natural consequence of laudable enterprise, that as many 
pump-rooms, with all the appendages of baths, should be 
built. Hence the multiplication of waters, which, as may be 
supposed, cannot all vary in the nature of their composition. 
| I have now to report how far the several waters, in number 
nine, are really distinct in character ; and what is their com- 
parative strength of impregnation. 


Saline Water. 

The water is transparent, but not sparkling. The same 
observation applies to all the waters. The temperature of 
this, and all the waters of Leamington, varies with the season 
of the year. For example, this spring, which in November 
1819 was 46°, proved, at the end of July 1820, to be 56°. 

The taste of this water is strongly saline, and considerably 

The specific gravity, 1-0119*. 

* In the ” Analysis of (lie Leamington Spa,” &c. &c. by Dr. Weatherhead, 
I find the specific gravity of this water to be staled so remarkably high as 
1-072. I cannot possibly account for this wide discordance with the result of my 
examination. I must consider this high specific gravity to be incompatible with 
the solid contents of the water. Dr. Amos Middleton makes a near approach to 
my number. I refer the reader to Dr. Weatherhead’s Analysis, and to Dr. Mid- 
dleton’s printed Tabular View of the different Waters. 

M 2 




Litmus paper becomes distinctly reddened. Hyacinth 
paper is not affected. 

To save repetition, I shall here observe, that each of the 
waters of Leamington gave similar evidences with these test 
papers, and each affected the litmus in about an equal de- 
gree ; the change of color being evanescent if allowed to 
dry with exposure to the open air. 

Tincture of galls produces a faint purple hue ; and prus- 
siate of potash, a perceptible shade of green. 

This, and all the waters at Leamington containing iron, 
cease to afford any evidence of the metal after being boiled, 
or being exposed for some time to the atmosphere. Con- 
sequently the iron exists in the water as an oxide held in 
solution by carbonic acid. 

Acetate of lead, a copious white precipitate. 

Solution of soap renders the water flaky. 

Muriate of lime does not disturb its transparency. 

Pure ammonia renders it milky. 

Pure barytes causes a dense cloud. 

Muriate of barytes produces a copious precipitate*. 

* Asa summary mode of obtaining an estimate of the proportion of com- 
bined carbonic acid in a mineral water. Dr. Murray (Annals of Philosophy, 
vol. x.) gives the following formula, the free carbonic acid being removed 
by the previous process of concentration, which prepares it for these steps : — 
“ Add to the water thus concentrated, a saturated solution of muriate of 
barytes, as long as any precipitation is produced, taking care to avoid adding 
an excess. By a previous experiment, let it be ascertained whether this 
precipitate effervesces or not with diluted muriatic acid, and whether it is 
entirely dissolved. If it is, the precipitate is of course carbonate of barytes, 
the weight of which, when it is dried, gives the quantity of carbonic acid ; 
100 grains containing 22 of acid. If it do not effervesce, it is sulphate of 
barytes, the weight of which, in like manner, gives the quantity of sulphuric 
acid ; 100 grains, dried at a low red heat, containing 34 of acid If it 
effervesce, and is partially dissolved, it consists both of carbonate and sulphate. 
To ascertain the proportion of these, let the precipitate be dried at a heat little 
inferior to redness, and weighed ; then submit it to the action of dilute muriate 
acid ; after this, wash it with water, and dry it by a similar heat ; its weight will 
give the quantity of sulphate, and the loss of weight that of carbonate of ba- 
rytes.” It was not convenient to us, with so many waters for examination, to add 



Lime water renders the water milky. 

Carbonate of ammonia produces a dense precipitate, and 
phosphate of soda, added to the clear licpior, a granular pre- 

Subcarbonate of soda, an abundant flaky precipitate. 

Nitrate of silver a copious precipitate. 

Oxalate of ammonia, also a copious precipitate. 

From these results we are led to conclude, that this water 
possesses a considerable share of free carbonic acid, a small 
portion of iron ; and that it contains lime and magnesia, 
muriatic and sulphuric acids. With respect to soda, we have 
no direct indication for it by tbe action of re-agents ; but, as 
it uniformly constitutes the base with which the excess of 
these acids is neutralised in all other mineral waters, its ex- 
istence may fairly be inferred here. 


In a pint. Grains. 

Muriate of soda 53-75 

lime 28-64 

magnesia 20-16 

Sulphate of soda 7-83 


Carbonate of iron, a small quantity. 


Sulphur Water. 

The taste of this water is saline, and, together with its 
odor, discovers its strong impregnation with sulphuretted 

The specific gravity, 1-0042. 


With respect to the saline ingredients, the tests produced 
the same appearances with all the waters, the difference 

this step to the other numerous processes. The carbonates, therefore, are not in- 
cluded in the analysis which I present of the Cheltenham and Leamington waters. 

iey would be inconsiderable and unimportant in the waters of Cheltenham : and 
not of much amount in those of Leamington. 



being only in degree, according to the different strength of 
impregnation ; as will be obvious. 

Acetate of lead instantly produced with this water a copious 
precipitate, of a deep porter color. 

Tincture of galls occasions a very faint purple hue. 
Prussiate of potash, no perceptible change. 


In a pint. Grains. 

Muriate of soda 15-00 

lime 7-96 

magnesia 3-30 

Sulphate of soda 1 1 -60 


Carbonate of iron, a smaller quantity than in the Saline 


This appears to be the spring noticed by Camden. It is 
situated near the church, at a short distance from the Leam, 
and has recently been enclosed by a small but handsome 
structure, with a pump-room. — A pump affixed to the outer 
part of the building is charitably allowed to the use of the 

The taste of this water is pleasantly saline, and slightly 

Specific gravity, 1 -0093. 

Tincture of galls renders the water very slightly purple. 

Prussiate of potash produces only a slight shade of green. 

Acetate of lead, a white precipitate. 


In a pint. Grains. 

Muriate of soda 12-25 

lime 28-24 

magnesia 5-22 

Sulphate of soda 32-96 


Carbonate of iron, a small portion. 




Taste, agreeably saline. 

Specific gravity, T0118. 

Tincture of galls produces a pale purple hue. 

Prussiate of potash, a shade of green, after standing, just 

Acetate of lead, a white precipitate. 


In a pint. Grains. 

Muriate of soda 46-75 

lime 17-20 

magnesia 3-05 

Sulphate of soda 31 -20 


Carbonate of iron, a minute portion. 


Taste, agreeably saline. 

Specific gravity, 1-010. 

Tincture of galls, after some minutes, produces a very 
faint purple hue ; which, by standing, becomes a pale brown. 
Prussiate of potash produces a distinct shade of green. 
Acetate of lead, a white precipitate. 


In a pint. Grains. 

Muriate of soda 30-30 

lime 21-52 

magnesia 5-22 

Sulphate of soda 33-44 


Carbonate of iron, a small portion. 

I()8 MRS. smith’s spring and marble baths. 


Taste, agreeably saline, more mildly so than the other 

Specific gravity, 1-0085. 

Tincture of galls produces a faint purple ; but prussiate 
of potash does not occasion any perceptible change. 

Acetate of lead, a white precipitate. 


In a pint. Grains. 

Muriate of soda 22-80 

lime 20-24 

magnesia 5-22 

Sulphate of soda 28-16 


Carbonate of iron, a small portion. 


The waters are supplied to the drinkers at this pump-room 
from urns, which are consequently the temporary reservoirs 
of the water. The material of these urns is cast iron, and, for 
the use of the sulphuretted water, should be exchanged for 
wood or stone. The water becomes blackened by the metal, 
from the decomposition which it undergoes with the gas ; 
and considerable pumping is necessary before the water can 
be delivered clear*. 

Right Urn. — The water from this urn possesses very 
strongly the smell and taste of sulphuretted hydrogen. It 
is also strongly saline. 

Specific gravity, 1-011. 

Acetate of lead produces an immediate, very copious, and 
deep porter-color precipitate, rather darker than the sul- 

* I am not aware whether, at the time that I am writing, any alteration has 
been made. 



phuretted water at the Royal Pump Room*. From a com- 
parison also, with characters written on paper with a pen 
dipped first in a solution of acetate of lead and then in these 
waters, the permanent evidence was rather in favor of this 
water, as being most strongly impregnated with the gas. I 
do not, however, view the difference as considerable. 

Tincture of galls produces a slight purple hue. 

Prussiate of potash, no perceptible change. 


In a pint. Grains. 

Muriate of soda 15-00 

lime 7-96 

magnesia 3-30 

Sulphate of soda 1T60 


Carbonate of iron, a small portion. 

Left Urn . — The taste of the water is strongly chalybeate, 
and this flavor predominates over the saline. 

The specific gravity, 1-0067. 

Tincture of galls immediately produces a strong purple 
hue ; which, by standing, passes into a clove-brown. 

Prussiate of potash becomes an azure blue ; which, by- 
standing, passes into verdigris green. This water, contain- 
ing a smaller proportion of saline ingredients, together with 
a larger proportion of carbonate of iron, than the Cheltenham 
waters, does not modify the action of these re-agents, in 
regard to the shades of color, to the extent which I men- 
tioned at p. 146. 

Acetate of lead produces with this water a white precipi- 

* Dr. Weatherhead’s results, in regard to sulphuretted hydrogen and carbonate 
of iron, in the different waters, occasion me the greatest surprise. See his Analysis. 
I can only observe, with regard to my own examination, that it was made at the 
springs; and the experiments have since been several times repeated. 




In a pint. Grains. 

Muriate of soda 7-38 

— lime 9-20 

magnesia 3-13 

Sulphate of soda 11 .20 


Carbonate of iron, probably about two grains in a gallon*. 

Middle Urn . — Taste equally saline and chalybeate. 

Specific gravity T0054. 

Tincture of galls, in about a minute, produces a lively 
purple ; the effect much less marked than with the water 
from the left urn. 

Prussiate of potash, in rather more time, occasions a light 
azure blue. 

Acetate of lead produces a white precipitate. 

* In opposition to Dr. Weatherhead, who states that this water contains only a 
trace of iron, so minute as to be incalculable, and that even the slight impreg- 
nation of this and the other waters “ may be sufficiently well accounted for, 
by ascribing it to the saline components of the spring acting on the iron pipes 
through which they flow” 1 — Dr. Loudon surprises me still more on the 
other side, by summing up for, the imperial gallon of the water, no less than 
upwards of 68 grs. (68'64). It is truly embarrassing to the general reader 
to meet with such conflicting statements in the analyses of different authors, 
and which must tend to destroy confidence in any. I hope not to appear un- 
courleous in my remarks, but I must deny the possibility of the accuracy of Dr. 
Loudon’s analysis in regard to the iron. In the powerful chalybeate water at Spa, 
called the Pouhon, the amount of oxide of iron in a gallon does not, according 
to Dr. Jones, exceed five grains and a quarter. The extraordinary quantity of 
upwards of 68 grs. of silex, stated by Dr. Loudon to exist in this water, is still 
more surprising than the amount of iron. 

Supposing that so large a proportion of silica as is here stated really exists 
in this water, it must, I conceive, be considered a very remarkable circumstance, 
and one highly deserving of further careful investigation. In hot springs, silica 
is a very frequent ingredient ; but scarcely, if at all, hitherto observed in cold 




In a pint. Grains. 

Muriate of soda 9-33 

lime 3*07 

magnesia 6-77 

Sulphate of soda 8-24 


Carbonate of iron, probably rather more than a grain in a 

From a review of the composition of all the Leamington 
waters, I am led to draw the following conclusions in regard 
to their chemical and medical properties. I shall endeavour 
to state my opinions in the most intelligible language. 

Royal Pump Room — saline water. This water, having . 
only a small quantity of iron, may be considered almost as a 
saline water, strongly alterative, and considerably aperient. 

It contains so large a propoi-tion of the muriate of lime, that 
it would not, in my opinion, be proper to heighten the power 
of the water by concentration ; and if it were desired to 
increase the saline aperient action, sulphate of soda or sul- 
phate of magnesia might be added ; but, in this case, I should 
recommend the patient to add himself a given quantity of 
solution of either salt. As a general rule, I would prefer 
that the action of the water on the bowels should be assisted 
by suitable pills taken on the preceding night. If saline so- 
lution be added, a pill, simply alterative, should be taken ; 
but, otherwise, one aperient and alterative. 

Royal Pump Room — sulphur water. This is an excellent 
alterative water ; and it is mildly aperient. It contains very 
good proportions of the muriates of lime and magnesia, and 
an active impregnation with sulphuretted hydrogen. The car- 
bonate of iron exists only in a small proportion ; but this will 
add to its efficacy as a stimulant. Upon examining a bottle of 
this water several months after I had received it in London, 

I found that it had lost all trace of sulphuretted hydrogen. 

It had been carefully corked and sealed at the spring. The 
Harrogate water, it will be remembered (see p. 74), retains 



its gaseous impregnation, seemingly undiminished, for many 
months ; and 1 am not aware of any limited time for the 
continuance of this property, if the cork be carefully sealed 
with wax*. The explanation of the difference in question, 
appears to be this. The Leamington waters are represented, 
in all the analyses which have been made, to contain a por- 
tion of atmospherical air. If sulphuretted hydrogen be pre- 
sent in a water containing atmospherical air, we may suppose 
it to become converted, by keeping, into sulphuric acid, which 
may combine with any basis present. The absence of at- 
mospherical air in the Harrogate water, and the large pro- 
portion of the gas, serve, therefore, to explain the perfection 
in which the water may be preserved. The change in the 
Leamington water takes place slowly. I examined another 
bottle, several weeks after it was in my possession, and found 
that it still retained, slightly, the smell and taste of the gas, 
and produced a light-brown precipitate with acetate of lead. 
We may suppose that the water acquires atmospherical air 
near the surface ; or why should not the decomposition take 
place before its arrival from the spring ? 

Lord Aylesford’s Spring. — This water is considerably 
aperient, and very active in its alterative properties, especially 
in its proportion of muriate of lime ; which, it will be ob- 
served, exceeds the quantity contained in any of the other 
waters. The proportion of iron is so small, that it cannot be 
expected to add materially to the stimulating quality of the 
water ; but if the water prove too exciting, it may be taken 
after the separation of the iron ; which, as its solvent is car- 
bonic acid, will fall down from simple exposure. 

I wish here to correct my observation at page 14, respect- 
ing sea-water, when speaking of its large quantity of mu- 
riates of magnesia and lime. I should rather have said, that 
sea water can be taken without hazard, than without incon- 
venience ; for, as a medicine, it is in every respect one not 
delicate for the stomach, and often proves very rough in its 
operation. In such large doses, these muriates act directly 

* This is much more suited to the purpose than resin. 



on the bowels. In the praise which 1 have given to these 
substances, I have spoken of them as alteratives, in con- 
currence with the sentiments of Dr. Murray, quoted at p. 100. 

Robbins's Spring. — This water may be compared very 
closely to the saline at the Royal Pump Room. It contains 
only a minute portion of iron ; and if this be thought matter 
of objection, in any particular instance, the water may be 
rendered free from its chalybeate impregnation, as already 
explained, by simple exposure for a few hours. 

Wise's Spring . — The same general observations are ap- 
plicable to this water as to the last. Its impregnation with 
sulphate of soda and muriate of lime is rather stronger ; 
while the muriate of soda is weaker. 

Smith's Spring . — In this water, the muriate of soda is in 
much smaller quantity than in the two preceding waters ; the 
muriate of lime is very considerable ; and the sulphate of 
soda in sufficient proportion. The oxide of iron can only be 
mentioned as a trace. 

Marble Baths Pump Room ; Right Urn . — This water, in 
its impregnation with sulphuretted hydrogen, is the nearest 
in strength to Harrogate water of all the waters which I 
have examined*. In its saline contents, it is evidently al- 
together a stronger water than the sulphuretted water at the 
Royal Pump Room, as will appear from a comparison be- 
tween the tables. In regard to the carbonate of iron, I 
believe the proportion to be about equal. 

Left Urn . — This water is a very strong chalybeate alter- 
ative ; and is inferior to the saline chalybeate of Harrogate 
only in its proportion of muriate of soda ; while, in the im- 
portant muriates, its impregnation is much stronger. I con- 
sider it to be a water altogether of active properties. 

Middle Urn. — This water possesses some considerable 
difference of character from the preceding. In the doses in 
which it is taken, the proportion of sulphate of soda becomes 

* This water is, however, quite distinct from the Harrogate in its total properties. 
The Harrogate is still more strongly sulphuretted, and retains the gas more in- 
timately combined ; it is quite free from iron ; and it is differently impregnated 
with the muriates. 



very similar; the muriate of lime a third less; the muriate 
ol magnesia about double ; and it has almost twice the pro- 
portion of iron. 

I think it necessary, in conclusion, to offer a few remarks 
on the relative qualities of the different waters, as compared 
with each other ; and, by such additional observations, I hope 
to give a sufficient medical view of the subject. In my re- 
port of the Harrogate and Cheltenham waters, I have already 
advanced opinions which will have a general application to 
those of Leamington. 

The Royal Pump Room saline is the most pure saline in 
Leamington ; that is, the most free from chalybeate impreg- 
nation. Robbins’s, Wise’s, and Smith’s springs, stand in a 
very equal relation to each other ; and possess so minute a 
share of carbonate of iron, that the waters on that account, 
except in particular instances, cannot be disapproved ; and, if 
this be a point of objection, either water may be freed from 
iron by simple exposure, as already stated ; or the saline 
water at the Royal Pump Room may be selected. 

Lord Aylesford’s spring differs from the last three waters 
in containing a stronger impregnation with muriate of lime, 
and about the same proportion of carbonate of iron. Conse- 
quently, in its medicinal action, it is to be viewed as more 
stimulating ; and, when increase of power is wanted, the 
most worthy of preference. 

The waters at the marble baths stand more by themselves 
in their composition. The sulphuretted water of the right 
urn is stronger in its gaseous impregnation than the sulphur 
water at the Royal Pump Room, with which it is to be com- 
pared. It contains rather more oxide of iron, more than 
twice the proportion of sulphate of soda, more than thrice ol 
muriate of lime, and about twice of muriate of magnesia. I 
would therefore pronounce that a patient should take the 
sulphuretted water at the Royal Pump Room first, as in- 
troductory to this the stronger. These waters will be suit- 
able remedies in many important cases of constitutional 
disorders and relaxation, after the saline aperient waters have 
been employed for a sufficient time ; or, in other instances, 
after an active course of aperient alterative medicines. 



The water of the left urn differs from all the rest in its 
high degree of chalybeate power ; and, if we assign to the 
muriates their due share of influence, we must reckon this 
water to be highly stimulating, and as seldom fit to be em- 
ployed until after a preparatory course of the pure saline 
water ; or of medicines which have freed the habit from 
every material symptom of excitement and visceral obstruc- 

The water of the middle urn appears to me in the same 
manner introductory to that of the left urn, as the one sul- 
phuretted water is to the other, in the order just described. 
It is strictly so in regard to the iron which it contains; and 
the only question in this respect will be as relates to the mu- 
riates, the most active of which it possesses in a threefold 
proportion. This point must be determined by the practi- 
tioner in the particular case of his patient. 

The waters of Leamington, as compared with those of 
Cheltenham, are, according to my view of their comparative 
composition, considerably different in their medicinal cha- 
racter. The saline class are much more highly impregnated 
with muriate of lime ; the sulphuretted in the one instance 
powerful, and the other almost negative; the chalybeate 
of very superior activity. But it does not follow that the 
invalid should, from this statement, give a necessary pre- 
ference to the springs of Leamington. On the contrary, 
in all these cases in which the most saline, or, in familiar 
language, the most cooling aperient waters are required, 
Cheltenham will deserve the preference. In general terms, 
I am disposed to consider that the use of the waters of 
Cheltenham should sometimes be introductory to those of 
Leamington, as being less stimulating. 

It would add unnecessarily, in my opinion, to the pages of 
this Treatise, already perhaps become too extended, if I were 
to pursue my medical details. The diseases which call for the 
use of the waters of Cheltenham, also demand the springs of 
Leamington ; with a consideration as to the order of their 
employment, which must be determined by medical opinion 
and experience. 

1 wish it to be understood, that all the observations which 


1 have advanced under the head of Cheltenham Waters, as 
to the necessity of fit 'preparation , and, in some cases, 
combining the use of pills, both alterative and aperient, are 
equally applicable to a course of the waters of Leamington*. 

It is but justice to add, of this watering place, that it is 
not surpassed by any in the kingdom for the extent, elegance, 
and excellence of its accommodations. Its numerous baths 
are constructed in a perfect style of neatness and good ar- 
rangement ; and the sulphuretted baths, when heated to the 
usual temperature, retain their gaseous impregnation in such 
a degree of strength as to render them fully worthy of con- 
fidence where such a remedy is required. 

* Dr. Lambe published an Analysis of two of the Mineral Springs at Lea- 
mington, in the Manchester Memoirs, vol. v, part i. He describes them as the 
water of the New Baths, discovered in 1790; and water of the Old Baths, dis- 
covered in 1786. He detected the presence of manganese in each water ; and 
speaks of its quantity as ” unknown, but very small.” 


The village of Great Malvern, distant from London 120 
miles, from the city of Worcester 8, and from Cheltenham 
22, is situated on the east side of a chain of hills, about 
nine miles, extending in an uninterrupted manner from north 
to south. “ The highest of these, called the Herefordshire 
Beacon, is 1444 feet above the level of the sea. From the 
top of these hills there is a most extensive and beautiful 
view, but presenting on the opposite sides very different 
characters. Towards the west appears a succession of rising 
ground, terminated by the distant Welsh mountains. The 
eastern side of the range is the steepest, and in this direction 
the prospect is over the widely extended plain of Worcester- 
shire. This side of the Malvern Hills is also much broken 
by narrow valleys, that run at right angles to the direction of 
the range. The whole of these hills is almost entirely co- 
vered with vegetation ; and only in a few places, and chiefly 
on the eastern side, does the rock project above the surface. 
The rock is also generally in a state of decomposition ; and, 
partly from this cause, its nature is not easily ascertained. 
We are indebted to Leonard Horner, Esq. for a very excel- 
lent account of the mineralogy of these hills : he describes 
the rocks as extremely diversified in their composition, and 
ambiguous in their character ; but as composed of felspar, 
hornblende, quartz, and mica, in various proportions, with, 
occasionally, epidote ; forming unstratified rocks of the pri- 
mitive class, and which may be considered as varieties of 
granite, sienite, and greenstone. On the western side are 
stratified rocks of the transition class, chiefly the species 
termed graywacke, containing a few fossil shells and sub- 
ordinate beds of enchrinital limestone. The dip of these 




rocks is various; but, in general, they rise towards the un- 
stratified central mass. The plain of Worcestershire, which 
comes up to the bottom of the eastern side of the hills, con- 
sists of a deep alluvium, covering a red sandstone, which 
does not occur on the western side. These hills do not give 
rise to any river ; but throughout its whole extent, there are 
several small springs, some of which are found to be minera- 
lized. Those of Malvern Wells have long been celebrated. 
They were first examined by Dr. Wall, of Oxford, in 1756 ; 
afterwards by Dr. W. Philip, of Worcester (now of London), 
in 1805.” 

Having premised this account of the country, with which 
I am obligingly favored by Thomas Webster, Esq. the Se- 
cretary of the Geological Society, I proceed to give a brief 
account of the waters. 


This pure fountain is situated at an agreeable distance up 
the hill which overhangs Great Malvern. The water is beau- 
tifully transparent. No crystal stream can be more clear. 
Received into a glass, quietly, it does not sparkle. 

To the palate, the water is devoid of taste ; but it is highly 
agreeable and refreshing, and at once conveys an assurance 
of its purity. 

I found the temperature, in September 1819, 51°. 

The specific gravity, L0002; distilled water being consi- 
dered 1 •0000. 


Neither litmus paper, nor that stained with the wild hy- 
acinth, undergoes any change of color. 

Nitrate of silver immediately produces a slight opalescence. 

Muriate of barytes acts very slowly in disturbing the 
transparency of the water, and but in a slight degree. 

Oxalate of ammonia acts in a similar manner. Neither 
tincture of galls nor prussiate of potash produces the smallest 
indication of iron. 



Lime water, according to Dr. Philip, does not disturb its 


A portion of the water was concentrated, by evaporation, 
to one-fourth, and treated in the usual manner with precipi- 
tants. A separate portion, much concentrated, gave a slight 
indication of magnesia, when assayed by carbonate of am- 
monia and phosphate of soda. 

From our analysis, thus conducted, we obtained the fol- 

lowing results : 

In a gallon. Grains. 

Sulphate of soda 1*940 

Muriate of lime 1-860 

Lime, *9320, probably in union with i 
carbonic acid, and equal to carbo-V 

nate of lime \ 1-664 

Magnesia, a trace 


Dr. Philip, in his analysis, made in 1805, gives the follow- 
ing table of the composition of the water* : 

In a gallon. Grains. 

Carbonate of soda 3-55 

lime 0-352 

magnesia 0-26 

iron 0-328 

Sulphate of soda 1 -48 

Muriate 0-955 

Residuum 0-47 


Dr. Saunders, who speaks only of the Holy Well water, 
observes, “ No iron or metal of any kind is found in it, 

Di. Philip states, “ that there is no uncombined fixed air contained in the 
Malvern waters. This would be extraordinary, with so considerable a proportion 
ot the carbonates as he assigns to the Holy Well water. 

N 2 



though thei’e are chalybeates in the neighbourhood*;” and 
the analysis by Dr. Philip represents the quantity to be little 
more than a quarter of a grain of the carbonate in a gallon. I 
did not discover, by very careful examination, the least in- 
dication of this metal. 


This spring issues up the hill, midway between the vil- 
lages of Great and Little Malvern. Its physical properties 
precisely resemble those of St. Anne’s Well. 

Its specific gravity is the same. 

It is affected in the same manner by re-agents ; and I have 
also to add, that our analysis furnished results so similar, 
that I do not think it necessary to give any tabular state- 

Dr. Philip, however, obtained double the quantity of solid 
contents from this water ; and, in describing the action of the 
tests, he states the following effect of lime water: “ Mixed 
with the water in equal quantities, at the spring, the trans- 
parency was not at first disturbed, but in a short time they 
became slightly turbid, and small flocculi were seen floating 
in the water.” 

In a short time after the publication of my Treatise, Dr. 
Philip wrote, in the Medical Repository!-, a detailed refuta- 
tion of the correctness of my analysis, and repeated his de- 
claration, that the waters of St. Anne’s and Holy Well 
Spring both contained iron ; the former ^ of a grain in a 
gallon, the latter i ; and that the proportion of solid contents 
obtained from the Holy Well was twice as much as that 
afforded by St. Anne’s. 

In these circumstances of difference of result, I asked the 
assistance of my friend Mr. Children, who most kindly un- 

* At a short distance from Malvern, my attention was directed to a spring, which 
is well known as a chalybeate. It was much out of order at the time ; but I sa- 
tisfied myself that it was a simple carbonated chalybeate, and not strongly im- 

t See vols. for 1820 and 1821. 




tier took the examination of the waters. With every wish to 
meet the question fairly, I may, I hope, be excused from 
entering here into a very extended discussion ; and I trust 
that it will not become necessary to engage in any further 
controversy on the subject. 

Mr. Children ascertained, by a distinct experiment with a 
nearly neutral solution of the muriate of iron added to dis- 
tilled water, that the tincture of galls produced a distinct 
purple shade, in the space of two or three hours, when the 
proportion of iron was that of one-seventieth of a grain in 
the gallon, and the quantity of water three ounces ; but, 
by employing a larger quantity in a glass jar (45 ounces), he 
derived distinct evidence of the action of the test, although 
the proportion of iron was rather less than that of one-hun- 
dredth of a grain in the gallon. 

At my request, Mr. Beale, Surgeon of Malvern, obligingly 
sent a vial of each water, containing a thin slice of gall-nut 
suspended to the cork. Neither water afforded the slightest 
evidence of iron ; — this result being the same as that which 
I had myself obtained when at Malvern. Mr. Children ex- 
amined the water with his usual science and care, in order to 
discover the presence of iron, and succeeded, according to 
the experiment detailed in the paper to which I have re- 
ferred, in making the detection. He concluded with saying, 
“ It is evident that the water contains some iron, but in 
quantity most extremely minute and he found that, in the 
Holy Well water, the quantity scarcely appeared to exceed 
that in the water of St. Anne’s Well. 

It is evident, therefore, that the discussion turns chiefly on 
the point of the actual existence of iron in these waters. It 
is needless to say that I no longer contend it, and I admit 
that I was misled by my confidence in the power of my 
tests. Dr. Philip, when expressing his objection to the test 
of galls as a sufficient proof of the absence of iron in waters 
in which it exists as a carbonate, states that, “ at the moment 
of the test being applied, the iron is in the act of separating 
from the water, and consequently not in the same state with 
respect to the test with iron intimately and permanently 
combined with the water.” I am not convinced of the truth 



of this criticism, but shall leave it to others to judge, whether 
the evidence in question could be weakened by the strong 
attraction of the galls for iron having the opportunity of 
being exerted on the metal, held in solution by its fugitive 
solvent the carbonic acid gas. 

In regard to the quantity of iron, I must express myself 
not satisfied with Dr. Philip’s conclusion, who states, if I 
understand him rightly, that the precipitate which he ob- 
tained through the agency of the prussiate of potash, the 
previous steps being properly conducted, was dried at the 
temperature of 70°; which I think much too low, preferring, 
as will be seen by reference to the Tunbridge Wells water, 
a degree of 212°, in order completely to expel the water. 
It may, I think, be further observed, that, when the chaly- 
beate impregnation of a water is so infinitely weak, it cannot 
be proper to employ the prussiate of potash for the ultimate 
analysis, as in pure prussiate of potash there exists a definite 
quantity of iron. For the best mode of effecting the separa- 
tion of iron from the other substances with which it may be 
mixed, I refer the reader to p. 50 of this Treatise. 

In Mr. Children’s examination of the whole solid contents 
of the waters, he found the proportion for the Holy Well 
water 4-57 grs. per gallon ; of St. Anne’s water, 3-35 grs. 

The difference of estimation between Dr. Philip and 
myself, of the nature of the saline ingredients in these 
waters, turns on the propriety of making the calculation ac- 
cording to Dr. Murray’s views. 


Dr. Saunders remarks, of Malvern, “ that it has been for 
many years celebrated for a spring of remarkable purity, 
which has acquired the name of the Holy Well, from the re- 
puted sanctity of its waters, and the real and extensive benefit 
long derived in various cases from its use.” He proceeds with 
the following account, which I believe to be abridged from 
the history given at length by Dr. Wall. As I have not 
myself had more than a slight experience of the medicinal 



effects of these waters, I shall present to the reader the 
whole quotation from Dr. Saunders’ Treatise. 

“ The great benefit arising from using Malvern water as 
an external remedy in diseases of the skin and surface of the 
body, has led to its employment in some internal disorders, 
and often with considerable advantage. Of these, the most 
important are, painful affections of the kidneys and bladder, 
attended with the discharge of bloody, purulent, or fetid 
urine ; the hectic fever produced by scrophulous ulceration 
of the lungs, or very extensive irritating sores on the surface 
of the body, and also fistulas of long standing, that have been 
neglected, and have become constant and troublesome sores. 

“ The Malvern water, though unquestionably of great be- 
nefit in many of the cases that we have just enumerated, is, 
in general, a perfectly safe application, and may be used 
with the utmost freedom, both as an external dressing for 
sores, and as a common drink ; and this is particularly the 
case with the common people that resort to this spring 
for cutaneous complaints or other sores, who are in the con- 
stant habit of dipping their linen in the water, dressing with 
it quite wet, and renewing this application as often as it dries. 
The perfect safety of this practice on a preter naturally ir- 
ritated surface has been ascertained by long experience, and 
is in itself an important circumstance in illustrating the effect 
of moisture on the surface of the body. 

“ The internal use of Malvern water is sometimes at- 
tended, at first, with a slight nausea, and, not unfrequently, 
for the first day or two, it occasions some degree uf Jiuwsi- 
ness, vertigo, or slight pain of the head, which comes on in 
a few minutes after drinking it. This effect Dr. Wall in- 
geniously explains from the temporary plethora of the vessels 
of the head, occasioned by the great ease and rapidity with 
which this pure liquid enters the absorbent system. These 
symptoms go off spontaneously after a few days, or may 
readily be removed by a mild purgative. The effects of this 
water on the bowels are not at all constant ; frequently it 
purges briskly for a few days, but it is not uncommon for the 
body to be rendered costive by its use, especially, as Dr. Wall 
observes, with those who are accustomed to malt liquors. 



In all cases it decidedly increases the flow of urine, and the 
general health of the patient ; his appetite and spirits almost 
invariably improve during a course of the water, if it agrees 
in the first instance. To this, the fine mountain air, and 
almost unrivalled beauty of the situation, which tempts the 
invalid to active exercise, will doubtless much contribute ; 
and the temperance and regularity of life which is generally 
observed in these places by patients of every rank, will assist 
in securing the advantages which have been gained by the use 
of the water. 

“ The duration of a course of Malvern water must vary 
very considerably, on account of the different kinds of dis- 
ease for which this spring is resorted to. Cases of obstinate 
scrophulous sores, especially with caries in any bone, are 
always long in healing, and require a residence here for a 
considerable time. The same may be said of very obstinate 
herpetic eruptions ; but where the cutaneous affection is 
mild, or where a tendency to it comes on at stated times, 
which is sometimes the case, this habit may be checked by a 
short use of this water ; and hence some persons, who are 
liable to this disorder, make an annual visit to this salubrious 

Of all the waters which have come under my examination, 
those of Malvern claim the most regard for their purity. I 
have felt it incumbent on me to state the preceding account 
of the recorded virtues of these springs ; but I offer no 
pledge ilia.! they pussess so great an efficacy. Indeed, when 
we consider for a moment the remarkably slight impregna- 
tion of each water, it becomes difficult to assign to them so 
large a share of medicinal power. I am, however, most 
willing to admit, that, if a course of water from either spring 
be united with a plan of regulated diet, both as regards the 
dinner meal and the use of wine, and with every attention 
to general regimen, the acquisition of material benefit may 
be expected. 

Dr. Philip claims for the Malvern waters a higher medical 
power than from their slight impregnation they would ap- 
pear to deserve. I perfectly agree with him in the following 



observation, that, “ in estimating the probable virtues of a 
mineral water, we must not attend so much to the mass of 
solid contents, as to the activity of these contents.” Of the 
medical powers of any mineral water, the physician is left to 
exercise his unprejudiced observations ; and he will shew his 
good sense in forming his judgment from such experience, 
rather than from the tabular statement of the analytical che- 
mist. Yet, at the same time, it would be absurd not to have 
a considerable regal’d to the contents of a water as shewn by 
the labors of the analyst. Some scepticism may surely be 
reasonably entertained towards the medicinal power of the 
Malvern water as a chalybeate, when the quantity of iron 
which it contains is so minute as only to be detected by a 
careful analysis of the water immediately fresh* from the 

Wishing to do every justice to Dr. Philip, I shall quote his 
observations respecting the chalybeate property of the water. 
“ I have, during a residence of twenty years in the neighbour- 
hood of Malvern, had extensive opportunities of judging of 
these effects of the waters, and have, in every case, seen them 
produce all the heating effects of iron. Two of my own fami- 
ly, who went to Malvern for the purpose of drinking them, 
were both obliged to discontinue the use of them, wholly on 
this account. Of this I am therefore assured, by repeated 
experience, that whatever be the quantity of iron in these 
waters, it is capable, in many constitutions, of producing 
some of the injurious effects of chalybeates ; and it is fair to 
infer from this, when in other cases we sec the strength tn- 
creased under their use, that some part of this effect also 
arises from the same ingredient.” With regard to the soda, 
as will appear from my calculation, I have not considered it 
to be united with the carbonic, but with the sulphuric acid ; 
and if this view be true, all the praise of the Malvern water, 
as possessing carbonate of soda, falls to the ground. By 
Dr. Philip’s own estimate, the dose of half a pint of the 
Holy Well water would contain rather less than the third of 

* Not having this opportunity, 1 fell into the mistake of believing that the 
water was wholly free from iron. 



a grain of carbonate of soda, and of St. Anne’s water, only 
a little more than half this quantity ! 

This is certain : — the salubrious air of Malvern, and the 
peaceful feelings which the quiet and charming retirement 
of the spot inspires, contribute in the greatest degree to 
strengthen the body, to calm the mind, and thus to promote 
the general health. It is from such a conviction, that I have 
advised the Cheltenham invalid to repair to this favored 
situation, at a certain period after the use of the aperient 
alterative waters. 

If my subject permitted me to indulge in romantic de- 
scription, I should find it difficult to confine my imagination 
when engaged in any account of Malvern ; so striking are its 
natural beauties ; so pure and restorative the air ; so perfect 
indeed, is the whole in every object which the mind solicits 
in a rural scene. 



At the particular request of Mr. Waterworth, the dis- 
coverer and proprietor of this spring, I am happy to insert 
a concise report of its chemical and medicinal qualities. I 
have made some examination of the specimen of the water 
with which I am favored ; but it would not suit my present 
convenience to engage in its analysis* which was made by 
the late Dr. Marcet, whose skill and philosophy in chemistry 
are too well remembered to require my praise. I shall there- 
fore beg leave to transcribe his details, offering such occa- 
sional comments as the subject may suggest. 


“ This spring is situated on the south-west coast of the 
Isle of Wight, about two miles to the westward of Niton, in 
one of those romantic spots for which that coast is so re- 

“ In its present state it may be said to be of difficult 
access, for there is no carriage road, nor even any regular 
foot-path along the cliff leading to it, and the walk would 
appear somewhat arduous to those unaccustomed to pedes- 
trian excursions. But it would be practicable, and probably 
not very expensive, to render this path equally easy and 
agreeable. It was in walking along the shore, a few years 
ago, that Mr. Waterworth’s attention was accidentally di- 
rected to this spring, which he traced to its present source, 

* Published in the Geological Transactions, vol. i. 



by observing black stains formed by rivulets flowing from 
that spot. 

“ With regard to the mineralogical history of that district, 
I have been favoured, through the kindness of my friend 
Dr. Berger, who visited the spot very lately, with so much 
more accurate an account of it than I should, from my own 
observation, have been able to offer, that I shall make no 
apology for transcribing it in his own words. 

“‘The aluminous chalybeate spring,’ says Dr. Berger, 
‘issues from the cliff on the S.S.W. coast of the Isle of 
Wight, below St. Catherine’s Sea Mark, in the parish of 
Chale. The bearing of the needles from the spot is N.W. 
while that of Rockenend, not far distant, is S.E. by S. 

“ ‘ The elevation of the spot, as far as I could ascertain it 
by the barometer, is one hundred and thirty feet above the 
level of the sea. Its distance from the shore may be about 
one hundred and fifty yards. 

“ ‘ The water is received into a bason formed in the rock for 
that purpose, and flows, as I was informed, at the rate of 
two or three hogsheads in a day. Its temperature I found to 
be 51°, that of the atmosphere being 48°; and it may be 
worth while to observe that this temperature corresponds 
with that of several springs of pure water which I have met 
with in the island. 

“ ‘ The lower part of the cliff is rather encumbered with 
masses of rock, or portions of soil, which have fallen from 
the upper strata. Immediately above these, the spring issues 
from a bed of loose quartzose sandstone containing oxyd of 
iron. This sand, in which vestiges of vegetable matter are 
discoverable*, alternates with a purplish argillaceous slate of 
a fine grain, disposed in thin layers, with a few specks of 
silvery mica interspersed through the mass. Black stains, or 

“ * On being sprinkled on a heated shovel, this sand scintillates as if undergo- 
ing a partial combustion. When submitted to chemical analysis, it yields a quan- 
tity of iron, but no lime, nor alumine, nor any other earthy matter soluble in 
acid. Close to the spring, this sand contains some traces of sulphuric acid, but 
not at a distance from it : it is evident therefore that the sand rock is not the 
medium through which the spring is impregnated.” 



impressions of vegetables, are seen on the natural joints of 
this rock. Above this, lies a stratum of several fathoms in 
thickness, of a blueish calcareous marl, with specks of mica, 
which has an earthy and friable texture, and contains im- 
bedded nodules or kidneys of sulphur et of iron. Many of 
these nodules have undergone a partial decomposition, to 
which, no doubt, the existence of the principal ingredients 
of the spring is to be ascribed. The upper strata of the 
cliff are composed of a calcareous freestone, alternating 
with a coarse shelly limestone, accompanied by nodules or 
layers of chert or flint. 

“ £ As the same arrangement of rocks here observed pre- 
vails in several other parts of the Isle of Wight, and even 
along the coast of Hampshire, it is not improbable that other 
springs of a similar nature might be discovered. May not 
Alum Bay , which lies to the north of the Needles, have 
derived its name from a circumstance of this kind ? 

“ ‘ On the road from Shorwell to Chale, the soil consists of 
ferruginous sandstone, and chalybeate iridescent waters are 
to be seen in several places. To the east of Fresh-water 
Bay, not far from the place where the cliffs of chalk begin to 
make their appearance, there is a rivulet, the taste of which 
strongly indicates the presence of iron. At Blackgang 
Chine, a little to the N.W. of the aluminous chalybeate, is 
another ferruginous stream running to the sea. The rock 
there is a sort of decomposed ironstone under the form of 
balls. The sound compact ironstone, having the appear- 
ance of flat pebbles worn by the rolling of the sea, occurs 
not unfrequently along the shore.’ 



The water issues from the sand rock above described 
perfectly transparent, and it continues so for any length of 
time, provided it be collected immediately, and preserved in 
perfectly closed vessels ; but if allowed to remain in con- 
tact with the air, or even if corked up after a temporary ex- 



posure to it, reddish flakes are soon deposited, which partly 
subside, and partly adhere to the inside of the vessel. 

“ b. It has no smell, except that which is common to all 
chalybeates, and this it possesses but in a very slight degree. 

“ c. Its taste is intensely chalybeate*, and, besides a con- 
siderable degree of astringency and harshness, it has the 
peculiar kind of sweetness which sulphate of iron and sul- 
phate of alumine are known to possess. 

“ d. Its specific gravity somewhat varies in different speci- 
mens. In three different trials I obtained the following 

results : 

1st specimen 1008-3 

2nd specimen 1007-2 

3rd specimen 1006 9 


which gives a mean specific 

gravity of 1007-5 


“ A. Paper stained with litmus was distinctly reddened by 
the water. 

“ B. Paper stained with Brazil-wood was changed to a deep 

“ C. When agitated in contact with the air, or repeatedly 
poured from one vessel into another, the water became tur- 
bid, and, on standing, deposited reddish flakes. 

“ D. On applying heat to a portion of the water just un- 
corked, and boiling it quickly , till it was reduced to one-half 
or even one-third of its original bulk, no precipitation what- 
ever took place ; but, on continuing the evaporation, a white 
feathery crystalline substance appeared on the surface of 
the fluid, and on pushing the process still further, a saline 

* I find the harsh astringency of the alum to be so powerfully predominant 
as almost to conceal the chalybeate taste. 



matter of a pale yellowish green colour appeared, which 
continued to increase till the whole was reduced to a dry 
yellowish mass. These were the phenomena observed with 
water recently uncorked ; but when, previous to the evapo- 
ration, it had been for some time exposed to the air, or when 
the evaporation was conducted very slowly, an appearance of 
reddish flakes was the first circumstance observed. 

“ E. The mineral acids produced no obvious change in 
the water. 

“ F. Oxalic acid produced a slight yellowish tinge ; but no 
immediate precipitation or turbidness. 

“ G. Oxalate of ammonia, in small quantity, likewise pro- 
duced a yellow colour, without precipitate: but on adding 
more of this test a white precipitate appeared. 

“ H. Prussiate of potash and infusion of galls produced 
abundant precipitates, the one blue, and the other black or 
dark purple ; and the colour of these precipitates was much 
paler when the water had not previously been exposed to the 

“I. Alkaline solutions produced copious greenish floccu- 
lent precipitates, which become darker on standing in the 

“ K. Nitrate of silver occasioned a dense, white, but not 
considerable, precipitate. 

“ L. Both muriate and nitrate of barytes occasioned co- 
pious white precipitates. 

“ M. A piece of marble being boiled for some time in a 
few ounces of the water, the marble was found to have under- 
gone no sensible loss of weight by that operation ; but its sur- 
face had acquired a faint yellowish tinge. 

“ N. A quantity of the water being evaporated to dryness, 
and a considerable degree of heat applied to the dry residue, 
a solution of this in water had the same effect of reddening 
litmus as before. 


“1. From experiment A, connected with experiments C, 



If, I, M, and N, and from the circumstance of taste, and 
other general properties, it appeared highly probable that 
the water contained sulphate of iron, and perhaps also sul- 
phate of allumine, without any uncombined acid.* 

“2. From experiments C and D, it appeared evident that 
iron and lime were contained in the water, and that their sol- 
vent was not carbonic acidt- 

“ The experiments D and E concurred to shew that the 
water did not contain any sensible quantity of carbonates. 

“4. The experiments F and G afforded additional evi- 
dence of the presence of iron, and whilst they shewed the 
existence of lime in the water, seemed to indicate that the 
quantity of this earth was not considerable. 

“ 5. It appeared probable from experiment K, that the 
water contained a small quantity of muriatic acid. 

“ 6. The change produced in experiment B, on the infu- 
sion of Brazil-wood, appeared at first ambiguous; it could 
not be owing to the prevalence of an alkali or carbonated 
earth, since the water turned litmus red, and since the pre- 
sence of carbonated earths had been disproved by other 
results. But having found, by comparative trials, that solu- 
tions of sulphate of iron changed paper stained with infu- 
sions of Brazil-wood to a black, or at least intensely dark 
violet colour, and that solutions of alum turned it crimson, 
and observing that a mixture of these solutions produced a 
dark purple hue, the appearance in question was easily 

“ 7. The result of experiment L indicated the presence of 
sulphuric acid. 

“ 8. Upon the whole, and from a review of the foregoing 
experiments, the substance which at this early state of the 
analysis the waters appeared most likely to contain, were, 
sulphate of iron, sulphate of alumine, sulphate of lime , 

“ * Solutions of sulphate of iron and sulphate of alumine, though made from 
these salts in their crystallized state, have, like acids, the power of imparting a 
red colour to litmus. 

“ f The reddish flakes mentioned in C and D, and in § ii, a, are uniformly 
found to be sub-sulphate of iron. 



aJid a small quantity of muriatic salts. Some sulphate of 
magnesia and some alkaline sulphates might possibly he 
contained in the water, though their presence could not be 
satisfactorily ascertained by these preliminary experiments.” 

For the sake of convenient brevity, I shall refrain from 
quoting any part of the analytical details, and state only the 
final results ; referring the reader to the original paper, from 
which he will derive equal amusement and instruction. 

“ On reviewing and connecting together all the foregoing- 
results, it appears that each pint, or sixteen-ounce measure, 
of the aluminous chalybeate, contains the following ingredi- 
ents : 

“ Of carbonic acid gas, three-tenths of a cubic inch. 


Sulphate of iron, in the state of crystallized green sulphate 41-4 

Sulphate of alumine, a quantity which, if brought to the state of 

crystallized alum, would amount to 31 "6 

Sulphate of lime, dried at 160° 10T 

Sulphate of magnesia, or Epsom salt, crystallized 3-6 

Sulphate of soda, or Glauber salt, crystallized 16-0 

Muriat of soda, or common salt, crystallized 4-0 

Silica 07 


“ I am not acquainted with any chalybeate or aluminous 
spring, in the chemical history of mineral waters, which can 
be compared, in regard to strength, with that just described. 
The Hartfell water, and that of the Horley-green spa near 
Halifax, both of which appear to be analogous to this in their 
chemical composition, and were considered as the strongest 
impregnations of the kind, are stated by Dr. Garnett to con- 
tain, the one only about 14 grs. and the other 40 grs. of 
saline matter in each pint. 

“ No doubt therefore can be entertained, that the water, 
which is the subject of this essay, will be found to possess, 
in a very eminent degree, the medical properties which are 
known to belong to the saline substances it contains. Indeed 
there appears to be in that spring rather a redundance than 




a deficiency of power ; and it is probable that, in many in- 
stances, it will be found expedient to drink the water in a 
diluted state ; whilst in others, when it may be desirable to 
take, in a small compass, large doses of these saline sub- 
stances, it will be preferred in its native undiminished 

It is difficult, from the low state of exsiccation of the salts, 
to adapt the above according to Dr. Murray’s view. We 
have considered that sulphate of lime, dried at 160°, may 
retain half its water. On this supposition, and upon the 
idea that the corresponding sulphate of soda contains water 
in a similar proportion, the following will be nearly the 
estimate : 

In a pint. Grains. 

Sulphate of iron 41-4 

alumina 31-6 

lime 7-2 

Muriate of lime 2-16 

magnesia 1-38 

Sulphate of soda 22-96 

Silica 70 


The muriatic acid may also be supposed to be partly in 
combination with the alumina and iron. In consequence of 
all the salts having been computed in the state of crystalliza- 
tion, an erroneous idea is conveyed of the strength of the 
impregnation of this water. If all the salts were perfectly 
dry, the weight of the solid contents would be reduced to 
almost half. For example, 100 parts of crystallized sulphate 
of soda contain only 44 of real sulphate. 100 parts of crys- 
tallized sulphate of iron contain of dry sulphate 55 parts; 
and the same quantity (100 parts) would represent nearly 
one-fourth of oxide of iron. Alum contains so large a pro- 
portion of water of crystallization, that, in becoming dry, it 
loses nearly half its weight. 

This view of the analysis appears to me important on me- 


1 9 

<lical grounds ; for, although it is unquestionably a water of 
great medicinal power, the tabular statement which Dr. 
Mai-cet has given may possibly convey a mistaken notion of 
its strength to the professional reader. 


The composition of this water clearly points out the lead- 
ing character of its nature as a medicine. Next to the mu- 
riate of iron, the sulphate is the strongest of the salts of iron 
which we possess ; and the usual range of doses which we 
prescribe is from one to six grains. The sulphate of alum 
is an active astringent, and hence we have already two in- 
gredients of considerable power. If we suppose that the 
water contains some portion of muriate of iron and muriate 
of alum, our estimate of its strength is still increased. The 
muriate of lime is in efficacious quantity ; and the muriate of 
magnesia is in sufficient proportion to produce an alterative 
effect. The sulphate of soda will tend to oppose the re- 
stringent action of the water on the bowels. It is evidently 
in chronic diseases of relaxation, when no inflammatory ac- 
tion is present, that the medicinal employment of this water 
is pointed out. Its strongly styptic taste seems of itself to 
dictate the necessity of commencing its use in a state of di- 
lution ; and the degree of this dilution must be proportioned 
to the delicacy of the stomach, in every particular case. 

I conceive, however, that, in this division of my subject, I 
cannot do so much justice to the character of the spring, as 
by quoting some pages from the able and candid report of 
the medicinal properties of this water published by Dr. Lem- 
priere, who had the opportunity, with the sick under his care 
at the Depot in the Isle of Wight, of administering the 
water upon an extensive scale. 

This Physician gives a tabular view of the diseases which 
preceded a course of the mineral water, with the results. 
The following is the list: — Continued fever, 17 ; agues, 90 ; 
pulmonic diseases, 18; chronic dysentery, 8 ; chronic rheu- 
matism, with emaciation, 27 ; diseases of the abdominal vis- 

O 2 



cera, including cases of anasarca, 21 ; asthenia, 10. The 
number benefited was 140 ; and 24 patients were taking the 
water ; 27 had omitted it. 

In describing the operation of the water, Dr. Lempriere 
proceeds with the following statement; which, as it serves to 
convey a clear account of the remedy, I shall take the liberty 
of presenting without abridgment. 

“ In giving this water, I was very forcibly struck with 
the rapid effect it produced on the appetite and spirits, and 
the confidence it inspired in the mind of the patient. In 
the course of a few days, from the urgent solicitations of the 
sick, it was found necessary to add to their ordinary allow- 
ance of animal food and vegetables*, a quarter of a pound of 
meat and half a pound of potatoes; and, with a view to re- 
covery, each was ordered one pint of porter per diem. 

“ The improvement of the appetite was soon succeeded by 
an increase of strength and a return of the natural complex- 
ion ; and the recovery of these patients evidently proved 
more permanent than that of any of the other Walcheren 
cases sent out of hospital under a different mode of treatment. 

“ The water did not appear to produce any immediate 
effect on the pulse, or skin, nor did it act particularly on the 
kidneys ; its tendency to increase the appetite and raise the 
spirits, was the only evident effect to be observed during the 
early course ; and a return of strength and general appear- 
ance of improved health, marked its latter progress. 

“ In administering the water, it was a rule, previously to 
devote one day to clearing the bowels by a suitable aperient ; 
and the sulphate of magnesia, or Epsom salts, was the 
medicine generally preferred. Under this preparation, the 
water seldom produced any disagreeable effect on the sto- 
mach or bowels, or rendered it necessary, during the course, 
to take laxative medicines ; an advantage which does not 
attach to the other chalybeate waters, unless they hold in 
solution a considerable portion of some aperient salt. 

“ * The allowance above alluded to, consisted of half a pound of beef or 
mutton, one pound of bread, and three quarters of a pound of potatoes per 



■ “ From the active substances contained in the aluminous 
chalybeate water, Dr. Saunders, as well as Dr. Marcet, have 
very judiciously recommended that, in the first instance, it be 
diluted. To patients with delicate stomachs, or in irritable 
habits, this precaution, as well as that of taking off the chill 
by immersing the glass in warm water, seems advisable ; 
but, in the Walcheren cases, the only qualification the water 
received, was the addition of a drachm, or tea-spoonful of 
the compound tincture of cardamoms, to each dose, which at 
first was only two ounces, or a small wine-glassful ; and 
this was repeated three times a day, giving the water at those 
periods which would the least interfere with the hours of 
meal. When first prescribed, it was thought advisable that 
it should not be taken in the morning, fasting ; but in this, 
as well as in many other particulars, the practitioner must 
act as circumstances shall suggest, bearing in recollection, that 
tonic medicines, in general, produce the greatest effect upon 
an empty stomach. 

“ In about three days, the dose of the water was increased 
to three ounces, or a larger wine-glassful, with the same 
proportion of tincture of cardamoms, three times a day ; and, 
at intervals, it was thus gradually augmented, until a pint, in 
four doses, could be taken in the twenty-four hours ; though, 
in most instances, twelve ounces, or three-quarters of a pint, 
were found sufficient. 

“ The water, no doubt, might occasionally be given with- 
out the tincture of cardamoms or any other addition ; but, 
independently of the risk which would thereby be incurred, 
of nauseating the stomach, it seems to have derived consi- 
derable efficacy from being combined with an aromatic ; in 
the choice of which, the practitioner must be regulated by 
the habits and constitution of the patient, as well as by the 
particular case thus brought under his consideration. 

“ In a course of this water, costiveness, which, with me, 
the remedy seldom induced, is most particularly to be guarded 
against, by the occasional use of a suitable aperient, of which 
the sulphate of magnesia, or the aloetic pill with myrrh, was 
generally preferred ; and a laxity of the bowels, if it extends 
beyond a temporary effect, may easily be restrained by add- 



mg to each dose a few drops of the tincture of opium, or, if 
further necessary, by qualifying it with some aromatic as- 
tri ngent. 

“ As the water had hitherto proved so beneficial, and as, 
in the first instance, it was an object to ascertain its efiicacy, 
uninfluenced by the aid of any other remedy ; I seldom was 
induced to vary the mode of giving it in the cases which have 
been the subject of the present report ; but as the alumin- 
ous chalybeate is not liable, like most other of the mineral 
waters, to rapid decomposition, I am convinced it might ad- 
vantageously be used in extemporaneous prescription ; so as 
to blend with it, either by admixture, or by a separate pre- 
paration, various other articles of the materia medica, that 
might not only give efficacy to the water itself, but also con- 
jointly promote the cure in instances where each remedy, by 
itself, might possibly fail. 

“ Thus, in obstinate agues, as also in many other com- 
plaints where debility forms a leading feature, the water, 
qualified with suitable aromatics, might serve as a vehicle for 
Peruvian bark, or for any other of the vegetable tonics ; in 
chlorosis, it might to advantage be conjoined with aloes, 
myrrh, and one of the bitter extracts, put together in the 
form of pills ; and, in cases of anasarca, good effects might 
be expected, from a combination of this water with a course 
of diuretics, of which, perhaps, in such cases, pills composed 
of one of the mercurial preparations, squills, and a suitable 
aromatic, may be considered the best. From this view of 
the subject, I have very lately commenced a trial of the mi- 
neral water with other remedies, the result of which may, 
perhaps, be the subject of a future communication. 

“ Under all circumstances, it would seem advisable to 
begin the water in very small proportions; and where, from 
the nature of the complaint, or from the peculiarity of the 
constitution of the patient, there appears to be the least risk 
of nauseating, it should uniformly be taken in a very diluted 
state, and this should not be altered, nor the proportion be 
increased, until the practitioner is well assured it may be 
done, not only with safety, but with increased advantage to 
the patient.” 


1 99 

The author adds the following judicious observations : 

“ A nutritive diet without excess ; a rigid attention to the 
state of the bowels, so as to avoid costiveness ; early hours, 
particularly early rising ; exercise in the open air, more es- 
pecially on horseback ; and sea-bathing, when not otherwise 
forbid, are among the useful auxiliaries to a course of this 
water ; and, as probably most of the cases in which the water 
will be recommended have been of long standing, and are of 
an obstinate nature, the patient must not be too sanguine in 
expecting an early cure, or fail to persevere in its use, so 
long as his medical adviser shall deem it requisite.” 

It is a pleasing consideration, that the virtues of this alu- 
minous chalybeate spring will be materially promoted by the 
salutary influence of the air, and the agreeable inducements 
to the patient to take daily exercise, which this beautiful 
island, distinguished by the exalted appellation of the Garden 
of England , every where offers. 

Of the importance and magnificence of this distinguished 
watering place and royal residence, it must be unnecessary 
for me to enter into any particulars. The town is built upon 
a substratum of the chalk which forms the range of hills 
called the South Downs ; to which, in a great measure, may 
he attributed the salubrity of the air of this district. Brigh- 
ton enjoys, in common with the southern coast of England, a 
mild climate in the winter season ; hut, on account of its want 
of shelter, is necessarily exposed to the force of high winds 
at certain times. 


I shall offer a brief account of this chalybeate water, to 
the virtues of which, the high testimony of Sir Matthew 
Tierney, Dr. Price, Dr. Paris, and others, has been amply 
borne. The following analysis, by Mr. Daniel!, Professor of 
Chemistry to the King’s College, London, is the latest which 
has been published. 


Its specific gravity, 1006-6. 

One pint yields 2 cubic inches of carbonic acid. 

After stating the elements, he adds, these ingredients are 
probably combined in the water, as 


Sulphate of iron 1 '66 

lime T78 

Muriate of lime 1-71 

magnesia.... 0-44 

■ — soda 1-36 



■ Represented according to Dr. Murray’s views, the iollow- 

ing will appear: 


Sulphate of iron 1.66 

lime "18 

soda 1‘66 

Muriate of lime 3.01 

magnesia '44 


From the composition of this water, it is evident that it 
may be esteemed a valuable medicinal agent; and proper to 
be employed in all those cases in which chalybeates are pre- 
scribed. It may be matter of opinion, whether the preference 
should be given to the sulphate or the carbonate of iron in a 
mineral water. If desiring a patient to take a chalybeate 
water distinctly, and one the most adapted to a delicate 
state of stomach, I should choose that of Tunbridge Wells. 
The Brighton spring contains a much larger portion of mu- 
riate of lime, and more of sulphate of soda, although not an 
important quantity. It is altogether a more stimulant water 
than the carbonated chalybeate of Tunbridge Wells. 


I believe that great praise is due to the arrangement of 
these artificial fountains, and the skill and science exercised 
in imitating the waters of Carlsbad, Eras, Marienbad, &c. &c. 
But however successfully this may have been accomplished, 
we cannot, I think, be authorised to assert that art can fully 
equal the work of Nature. All the ingredients, gaseous 
and solid, which the waters are found by the most careful 
analysis to contain, are faithfully mixed together, and the 
power of heat is added to bring about the desired product : 
but it must not be concluded that the wonderful combinations 
which are effected by Nature within the bowels of the earth, 
can, with the same nicety, be accomplished in the laboratory. 



In what an immense proportion is silica found dissolved in 
the springs of Iceland. No similar solution can be effected by 
the chemist. The force of pressure, and the operation of 
causes, with many of which we are unacquainted, cannot be 

Whether, in a saline mineral water, the solid contents 
exist as analysis produces them, or according to their solu- 
bility — we have no certainty, I think it may be asserted, of 
producing either result in perfection, by any means of che- 
mical art that we can exert. 

In conclusion, I have to observe, that, although it may be 
extremely desirable on many occasions to have recourse to 
the artificial German waters of Brighton, and important for 
those who cannot make it convenient to visit the native 
springs to take advantage of the substitute, it would, in my 
opinion, be too high praise to consider them possessing equal 
virtue, and capable of the same efficacy, as the waters when 
drunk at the fountain source. 

It would be foreign to my present purpose to enter into 
any detail of my opinions of the medical properties of these 
waters ; but I have thought it right to offer these remarks on 
this ingenious and valuable establishment which Brighton, 
amongst its numerous other attractions, now possesses. I 
consider, also, that it may be acceptable to the reader to be 
put in possession of the account of the “ German Spa ” at 
Brighton, and the table of anlayses, published by Dr. F. 
Kreysig, and by Dr. F. A. A. Struve, both of Dresden. 
Without further apology, therefore, I subjoin the whole of 
this statement. 

“ The Institution, of which the following is a short ac- 
count, has for its object the perfect imitation of the principal 
Mineral Waters of Germany, so that no difference can be 
perceived between the natural and artificial productions, 
either in regard to their sensible properties, or to their 
effects on the human frame. 

“ The utility of such an establishment is unquestioned, 
since no mineral springs are to be met with, either in 
England or any other country, at all equal in efficacy to those 



of Carlsbad, Marienbad, Eras, Pyrmont, and Spa, which for 
centuries have maintained the highest reputation as medici- 
nal remedies. 

“ It may here be well to state in what respect the waters 
prepared at this establishment are distinguished from other 
imitations, and with what justice they are asserted to be ex- 
act representations of the natural springs. 

“ The principal cause of this similarity is the synthetical 
exactness observed, as well in regard to the quality as to the 
quantity of the ingredients. An accurate analysis of the 
natural waters was therefore indispensable in the first in- 
stance ; and Dr. Struve has devoted himself with uremitted 
attention to this object. The results of his investigations, 
which differed materially from those previously published, 
with the exception of the unrivalled analysis of the Carls- 
bad waters by Berzelius, will be seen from the annexed 
table. The substances there enumerated are all contained 
in the factitious mineral waters at Brighton, in precisely the 
same proportions. 

“ Mr. Faraday, of the Royal Institution, who had the kind- 
ness to analyse the most complicated of the above waters, 
namely, that of Carlsbad, has given us leave to refer to him 
as to its correctness in a synthetical point of view. 

“ On this correctness the efficacy of the waters depends : 
yet their virtues must not be referred to the single ingredi- 
ents* ; on the contrary, the nature of the component parts, 
the fluid form of mineral waters, and the causes to which we 
may trace their origin, should lead us to consider the combi- 
nation of the single elements in one whole, as necessarily 
differing in its therapeutic character from that of the un- 
connected ingredients. 

“In proof that this peculiar mode of combination has 
been successfully attained in the artificial waters prepared by 
Dr. Struve, we need only mention that, at the original esta- 

* This theory was till now universally adopted, and followed in the preparation 
of Factitious Mineral Waters; hence, only those constituent parts were em- 
ployed which were considered the most efficacious, and which were found to 
combine most readily with the waters. 



blishment in Dresden and at those subsequently formed in 
Leipsic, Berlin, and Warsaw, these artificial waters have 
produced precisely the same effects as those of nature on 
many thousand patients, many of whom had for a series of 
years been in the habit of using the latter. 

“ As a standard from which to form a correct judgment of 
the artificial production, it may be proper to give a concise 
view ol the peculiar effects of the natural springs. 



“ These waters operate chiefly on the intestinal canal and 
the abdominal viscera, considerably augmenting the secre- 
tions and excretions. They can by no means be regarded 
as merely purgative, but as alteratives, effecting an important 
change in, and greatly improving, the assimilative process. 
Hence they act more immediately on the abdominal obstruc- 
tions, especially on those of the liver, the spleen, the pan- 
creas, the mesenteric glands, and the whole system of the 
venae portarum. 

“ They are singularly efficacious in the cure of obstinate 
ague, in jaundice, in that constitution formerly termed atra- 
biliarian, and in tendency to costiveness; in hemorrhoidal 
affections ; in some kinds of amaurosis proceeding from ab- 
dominal obstructions ; in gall-stones and predisposition to 
formation of calculi or gravel in the kidneys and bladder, 
as well as in some cases of gout and obstinate rheumatism ; 
in a tendency to excess of acid in the primse vise ; in chronic 
cough and asthma, from indigestion ; in certain cases of 
nasal polypus, and in obstinate external ulcers : likewise in 
palpitation of tbe heart and the larger vessels, when the 
latter are not in a state of aneurism or degeneration of the 
organic matter; in diseases of the uterus; in suppressed, 
irregular, or painful menstruation ; in fluor albus, and in 
cutaneous diseases; and, lastly, in nervous complaints origi- 
nating in the abdominal organs, as hypochondriasis, hysteria, 
and melancholy ; in St. Vitus’s dance, and in catalepsy. 



They are beneficial in complaints arising from imperfect 
development of the measles and scarlet fever, and in counter- 
acting the effects of some mineral poisons. 

“ On the contrary, they are 'prejudicial in a hectic habit, 
and in inclination to apoplexy, in internal indurations, ap- 
proaching to scirrhus or an advanced stage of suppuration, 
in syphilis, and in scurvy. 

“Dose varies from 3 to 10 glasses (of 6 ounces), at inter- 
vals of 10 to 20 minutes. 

“ The patient should commence with the waters of a 
lower temperature, as those of Miihlbrunnen or Neubrun- 
nen, and with a few glasses only, gradually increasing the 
number, and confining himself to these springs, if he be at 
all subject to headache, vertigo, and determination of blood to 
the head and chest. 

“ Commonly two or three evacuations ensue : sometimes, 
however, when the spring operates powerfully on the urine 
and perspiration, the bowels are not relaxed , and recourse 
must be had to gentle aperients. For this purpose, half or 
one glass of the aperient waters of Seidschiitz may be re- 
commended ; or one to two spoonfuls of the Carlsbad salts ; 
both of which are always ready at the pump-room. 

“ Many persons are restored to health in a gradual and 
almost imperceptible manner. With others, who labour un- 
der more severe disorders, the inconveniences incident to 
their respective complaints not unfrequently increase, or at 
least do not appear to lessen. Such patients, after drinking 
the waters for a week or a fortnight, experience a sensation 
of lassitude, together with fever and irritability, in conse- 
quence of the action of the water on the suffering organs : 
after various critical evacuations, however, by stool, urine, or 
hemorrhoids, this state of excitation gradually gives way to 
health and cheerfulness. 

“ It is often advisable to take from one to three glasses of 
Seidschiitz for a few days previously to the commencement of 
a course of Carslbad. The hot Sprudel uniformly agrees 
best with persons of a low degree of excitability, especially 
when it is desirable to augment the activity of the cutaneous 



“ During a course of mineral waters great attention must 
be paid to diet: thus all acid aliments, such as are heavy and 
difficult of digestion, together with heating and spirituous 
liquors, are to be avoided. A course should last one month, 
or longer, according to the nature of the disease. 


“ These waters bear a near resemblance to those of Carls- 
bad, and are suitable in the same class of disorders in general. 
They, however, do not augment the alvine discharges, but 
more the urinary and cutaneous ones. Their action being less 
intensive than that of Carlsbad, they are better adapted for 
weak persons and for high degrees of nervous irritability ; in 
topical complaints, as indurations of the glands and of the 
uterus, which have proceeded too far to admit of Carlsbad ; 
where a tendency to scirrhus is suspected, or in a disposition 
to spitting of blood. Further, in hysterical and spasmodic 
affections of females, in scrophula (especially in children), and 
in scrophulous predisposition, as well as in impending pul- 
monary consumption arising from that predisposition, provided 
suppurating tubercles do not exist; in swellings of the joints, 
and in rachitis. In inveterate catarrh, chronic hoarseness, 
cough, and asthma; in irregular and painful menstruation, 
fluor albus, and sterility, Ems is peculiarly beneficial. 

“ These waters are 'prejudicial in the same cases as Carls- 

“ The warm or lukewarm springs of Ems may be chosen 
according as a lower or higher degree of temperature may 
suit the constitution of the patient. In general, the Kessel- 
brunnen acts more powerfully: it is, however, found to agree 
better. As with Carlsbad, an inconvenient feverish sensation 
occurs sometimes towards the middle of the course, but soon 
passes off. Dose, 4 to 10 beakers. 

“In persons afflicted with pulmonary complaints, in very 
irritable constitutions, milk may be added with advantage. 
In a tendency to costiveness, one or two beakers of the Carls- 
bad Muhlbrunnen may be taken each morning in conjunction 
with a course of Ems. Diet, as with Carlsbad. 





“ From the similarity of its ingredients and effects, this 
spring has frequently been denominated Cold Carlsbad. It 
purges more, but accelerates the circulation of the blood less 
than the latter. Hence it is preferable in an accelerated state 
of the sanguiferous system, or where the Carlsbad might oc- 
casion congestions, headache, and vertigo ; on the other hand, 
in material obstructions of the liver and other organs, Carls- 
bad is more suitable. Upon the whole, the Kreutzbrunnen 
does not produce so sensible an impression on the digestive 
organs as the other. 

“It is hurtful precisely in the same cases as Carlsbad. 
Dose, varies from 3 to 10 beakers. 

“ Where the coldness of this water produces oppression on 
the stomach, or diarrhoea, it is well to add to each beaker a 
table-spoonful of hot milk (which is kept in readiness at the 
Pump-Room), or to mix one quarter of the Carlsbad Sprudel 
with three quarters of the Kreutzbrunnen. Diet, as with the 
above waters. 


from their larger proportion of carbonic acid and iron, and 
their smaller quantity of carbonate and sulphate of soda, form 
a medium between the Kreutzbrunnen and the purely 
strengthening Chalybeates of Pyrmont and Spa. They are 
indicated as substitutes for the Kreutzbrunnen, where power- 
ful evacuations are less necessary, or where the constitution 
is more delicate. They are less admissible in confirmed vis- 
ceral obstructions, and more advisable where the latter are 
yet in a state of development, and where the evil is seated 
in the nervous system. In the use of both these waters, at- 
tention must he paid to regular evacuations by stool. Dose, 
2 to 10 beakers. 




are both purely strengthening Chalybeates. They augment 
the energy of the vital functions, exerting a powerful influence 
over the digestive, assimilative, sanguiferous, and nervous 
systems. They prove efficacious in the debility consequent on 
severe diseases, on violent bodily and mental exertion, and on 
material loss of blood; in many cases of impotentia virilis : 
they are also of benefit in chlorosis, in copious mucous dis- 
charges, in protracted diarrhoea and chronic catarrh ; in ir- 
regular spasmodic and painful menstruation, in fiuor albus 
and tendency to abortion, proceeding from mere debility : 
likewise in excessive irritability; in spasms, in nervous ver- 
tigo, in weakness of the eyes, and even in amaurosis; in par- 
alysis, in continual want of appetite, habitual vomiting without 
organic vice, mucous hemorrhoids, in a tendency to the 
generation of worms, and in certain cases of atonic gout and 

“ They are injurious in obstructions and indurations of the 
abdominal viscera, in spitting of blood, and in hectic and 
apoplectic predispositions. 

“ If a course of the waters does not keep the bowels open, it 
will be advisable to take one or two glasses of the Seidscbiitz 
before going to bed. 

“ In great irritability of the stomach, the addition of hot 
milk renders the water more easy of digestion. 

“ Spa operates, upon the whole, like Pyrmont, but more 
gently, and agrees better with irritable and weak constitutions. 

“ In the use of both, temperance in all pleasures, and regu- 
larity of bodily and mental regimen and diet, are indispensable. 
All food difficult of digestion, acrid and raw fruits, strong tea, 
and every excess of stimulating and spirituous liquors, are to 
be avoided. Dose, 2 to 8 beakers. 

“ The bitter waters {bitter wasser) of Seidschuetz are gently 
purgative. This water is very suitable as a preparative to that 
of Carlsbad, and may be taken for three days or a week pre- 
viously to a course of the latter. It frees the bowels in a 



by Dr. STRUVE of Dresde 


Ingredients found in 16 
ottnces of H ater in a 
dry state. 


Ems. * 













Skidschu rz. # 

Carbonate of Soda 

9 695 

10 750 





0-7375 | 6 6210 



Sulphate of Soda 







0-0375 | 0 0420 



Muriate of Soda 




8 996 

7 96 


0-44949 0-5430 



Sulphate of Potash 





0 93 



7909 | 0-2872 



Muriate of Potasli 







0 | o 



Carbonate of Lime 



4 1300 









Sulphate of Lime 











Phosphate of Lime, bas . 














Fluate of Lime 

0 024 







Carbon, of Magnesia. . 

1 369 


3 0560 








1 0980 




Sulphate of Magnesia . . 






2 69752 


Muriate of Magnesia. . . . 











Nitrate of Magnesia . . . . 






















Phosph. of Alum, bas. . 

0 0024 





0 01478 




0 0027 





Carbon, of Strontian. . . 

0 007 










Sulph. of Strontian . . . 






0 02063 





Carbon, of Barytes. . . . 


0 0029 
















0 302 

Carbon, of Iron 

0 0278 




0 350 








0 0042 

Carb. of Manganese. . . 

0 006 


0 0065 






Carbonic Acid Gas . . . . 

in 100 cub in. 

in 100 cub in. 

in 100 cub 


in 100 cub in. 


in 100 cub. in. 

in 100 cub. in. 

in 1U0 

cub. in. 

in 100 cub. in. 


in 100 cub. in. 

59° F. 

58° F. 


Spru. 164*75° F 
Neii. 138-31° F 
Miih. 12-875° r 
Ther. 122-56° F 

. Kessel. 117-5°F 
Kranch.83 75°1 

7 53-375° 


48-875° F. 

52 99° F. 

56-75° F. 

* Berzelius. 

* Struve. 

* Strut 


* Steinmann. 

* Struve. 

* Struve. 



* Struve. 

* Stt'uve. 


(To be placed between page a zm o unu 


gentle manner from mucus and bile, and removes lesser ob- 
structions of the glands and of the abdominal viscera. Dose, 
1 to 4 beakers. 

“ In great irritability of the intestinal canal, it is proper to 
take half the requisite dose in the evening, and the remainder 
on the following morning, mixing it with hot milk. 

“The acidulous waters of Selters (Seltzer) and Geilnau 
are frequently taken by healthy persons as a refreshing 
beverage. They are of great benefit to patients suffering 
from acid in the stomach, chronic vomitings (occurring in the 
morning) without organic vice ; in disorders of the bile and 
digestion ; and in diseases of the kidneys and the bladder. 
Even in incipient phthisis they are productive of the happiest 
effects. Dose, 4 to 6 beakers, which may be taken with 




This spring is of the same general nature as that of Epsom, 
from which the well-known salt* derives its name, although 
the quantity of sulphate of magnesia appears to be more 
considerable at Beulah than that of its neighbour, once so 
celebrated, though now scarcely known. Epsom is likewise 
on the London clay, and within the boundaries of the Basin. 
The two situations are, therefore, precisely analogous, and any 
comparison instituted between them is more likely to be in- 
teresting than between either of the places and Cheltenham, 
which is upon a stratum altogether different, namely, the lias. 

The range of low hills on which the Beulah Spa is situated, 
lies within what is termed the London Basin, first described 
by Mr. Webster, in his paper in the Transactions of the 
Geological Society, and subsequently spoken of in Conv- 
beare’s and Phillips’s Work on the Geology of England, and 
other geological treatises. It is, strictly, situated in the stra- 
tum called the London Clay, which is demonstrated by its 
position within the boundaries of the Basin, the nature of the 
clay itself, of which all these hills are composed, and the nu- 
merous septaria found in every part of the clay, when dug 
into. The well itself, which is now formed round the spring, 
is about 16 feet deep, and is constantly supplied with water. 

A handsome and picturesque building, of a rustic character, 
has been erected over it, in which the water is dispensed. 

* Now very generally obtained in a pure state from magnesian limestone, by 
treatment with sulphuric acid. 


It is transparent, but, poured quietly into a glass, it does 
not send forth any air-bubbles. 

Its taste is saline, and distinctly, but to most palates not 
disagreeably, bitter. 

Its specific gravity, at 65°, is 1'0091. 

The color of litmus paper is not changed ; but that which 
has been reddened has its blue slightly restored. 

Muriate of barytes produces a very abundant precipitate. 

Nitrate of silver, an immediate copious precipitate. 

Oxalate of ammonia, an immediate sensible precipitate. 

Pure ammonia, a slight milky appearance. 

Carbonate of ammonia, a similar effect. 

Subcarbonate of soda, a strong milky appearance. 

Lime water instantly produces a strong milky appearance, 
and a speedy, considerable precipitate. 

From these indications, we are led to conclude that the 
water certainly contains sulphuric and muriatic acids, with 
magnesia and lime. Any of the alkaline bases must be dis- 
covered by other means. 

It has not been convenient to me to proceed further in the 
examination of this water ; and T shall therefore take the 
liberty of quoting the following account from the pamphlet 
recently published by Dr. Weatherhead, the resident physi- 
cian at Norwood, who states that “ its temperature at the 
bottom of the well is 52° Fahrt. ; its specific gravity, 1-011 ; 
and, by an analysis of its composition by those distinguished 
scientific chemists, Messrs. Faraday and Flume, the follow- 
ing are the solid contents of a quart of the water : 


Sulphate of magnesia 123 

soda and magnesia 32 

Muriate of soda 19 

magnesia 1 8-5 

Carbonate of lime If) 

— ■ — soda 3 



Dr. Saunders mentions, “ that the Epsom water has not 
been analysed with any considerable accuracy, hut that the 
highest estimate of the proportion of sulphate of magnesia in 
a gallon has been about 600 grains, the lowest 320 ; and he 
thought, from the moderate degree of sapidity of the water 
when first taken, that the latter was the most probable 

This water, from its large impregnation with sulphate of 
magnesia, is evidently a stronger aperient than any of the 
waters of Cheltenham or Leamington, but cannot be made the 
fit subject of comparison with those springs, which, as will ap- 
pear from the tabular statements, are waters of a very dif- 
ferent character, and especially in regard to the carbonate of 
iron and the muriate of lime, neither of which ingredients 
is found in this water. 

We are not informed by what steps the triple salt of sul- 
phate of magnesia and sulphate of soda was obtained. This 
salt was first described by Link, a German chemist, in 1796, 
who obtained it by saturating bi-sulphate of soda with mag- 
nesia, and crystallizing the solution. The crystals are not 
altered by exposure to the air. At 60°, they dissolve in 
about thrice their weight of water. 

Dr. Murray, in a paper in the eighth volume of the Edin- 
burgh Transactions, enters at length into the history of this 
salt ; and, after describing the mode in which he obtained it 
from the products of the evaporation of sea-water, makes the 
following observations. 

“ The difference of crystalline form, as well as other dif- 

* With a view to preserve a constant correct acquaintance with the power of a 
mineral spring, it might he desirable that a quantity of the water should be evapo- 
rated in the spring and autumn, and the amount of the product be ascertained, in 
order to determine the influence of the previous seasons of spring and autumn ; 
and that a regular analysis should be made at more distant periods, from time 
to time, for the purpose of discovering the effects which may have been produced 
upon the impregnation of the spring, as a consequence of those extraordinary 
unknown changes which so frequently happen within the bowels of the earth. 
The best analytical steps of chemistry being always employed, and the tempe- 
rature of 212° being used in drying the precipitates, results might be obtained 
which would no longer lead to imputation of the science, or the fidelity of the 



ferences of properties in the salt, from those eitliei of sulphate 
of soda or sulphate of magnesia, sufficiently prove that it is 
not merely an intermixture of the two, but that it is of defi- 
nite composition, consisting of 


Sulphate of magnesia 32 

soda 39 

Water of crystallisation 28 

Loss 1 


“ Its taste is much less disagreeable than that of sulphate ol 
soda or sulphate of magnesia. It might, therefore, probably 
be introduced with advantage as a purgative salt*, especially 
as it could be procured at a low price ; and, from its composi- 
tion, it would afford a very good substitute for the aperient 
mineral waters which usually owe their activity to sulphate 
of soda and sulphate of magnesia.” 

It is unquestionable that this spring very much deserves 
recommendation, as an excellent saline aperient water, free 
from metallic impregnation. It should be taken upon an 
empty stomach, in the morning early, as the most advanta- 
geous time ; or, when this does not prove convenient, in an 
hour or two after a light breakfast. The quantity must be 
proportioned to the nature of the case, the constitution of the 
patient, and, above all, to the effects intended to be produced. 
The total quantity should be taken in two or more divided 
doses, walking or horse exercise being used in the intervals ; 
and occasionally it will be expedient, as with the waters of 
Cheltenham and Leamington, that the temperature should be 
artificially increased to a moderate and pleasant degree of 
warmth. Whether or not any alterative preparation of mer- 
cury, or any resinous purgative in the form of pills, or any 

* I do not suppose that it need influence our medical view of the question, 
whether we consider that sulphate of magnesia and sulphate of soda exist in a 
mineral water, each in the separate stale, or as a triple salt. 



other description of medicine, should be taken in conjunction 
with the water, must be so entirely a point of distinct con- 
sideration in every individual case, that, in this very general 
view of the subject, I shall not enter upon it ; further than to 
remark, that it would doubtless be useful for some invalids to 
take a tonic stomachic medicine in the middle of the day, after 
the proper influence of the water on the bowels. The con- 
tinued daily use of an aperient mineral water, with the ad- 
vantage of good air and correct regimen, is highly important 
in correcting an established faulty state of the bowels, and 
rarely proves debilitating to the constitution — a consequence 
which may occasionally happen from the equal employment 
of ordinary aperient medicines. But, in order to secure this 
superior benefit, the plan must be adopted at the favorable 
part of the year, when warm and settled weather lends its 
important aid. 

The situation of Norwood Spa has, in proper seasons of 
the year, much to recommend it to the inhabitants of the 
metropolis, who may, with so much convenience from its 
vicinity, unite the enjoyment of fine air, of agreeable walks 
and rides, of pleasant prospects, of a quiet retreat from the 
bustle and the murky atmosphere of the town, with the use 
of a mineral water of decided medicinal power, and of that 
description which the majority of persons can take with more 
or less of certain benefit. 

IT, in any case, it could seem equally advantageous to take 
either the mineral water itself, or an attempted imitation of 
it when at home, a water of this description would offer 
itself as the most convenient for the purpose, as its proper- 
ties are of a permanent character, with the exception pro- 
bably of a little carbonic acid gas, which it may lose on 
removal. But, even in regard to this or any similar water, 
I can have no hesitation in declaring my opinion, that only at 
the fountain head can the remedy be used with full advan- 
tage ; and the argument is quite conclusive towards all mine- 
ral waters of very complicated composition. Be it also 
always remembered, that the various adjuncts of change of 
air, the keeping of good hours, the regularity of exercise, 



the excitement of the mind from novelty of scene, and from 
new society, with the absence of cares at home, are of the 
highest importance in the plan of renovation of the body and 
the mind. 

I now conclude my Treatise, and shall feel well rewarded 
for my labors, if I have succeeded in exhibiting a faithful view 
of my subject, at all worthy of its interest and importance.